Advertisement

Smokefree Policies to Reduce Tobacco Use

A Systematic Review

      Abstract

      In 2001, a systematic review for the Guide to Community Preventive Services identified strong evidence of effectiveness of smoking bans and restrictions in reducing exposure to environmental (secondhand) tobacco smoke. As follow-up to that earlier review, the focus here was on the evidence on effectiveness of smokefree policies in reducing tobacco use. Smokefree policies implemented by worksites or communities prohibit smoking in workplaces and designated public areas. The conceptual approach was modified for this review; an updated search for evidence was conducted; and the available evidence was evaluated. Published articles that met quality criteria and evaluated changes in tobacco-use prevalence or cessation were included in the review. A total of 57 studies were identified in the period 1976 through June 2005 that met criteria to be candidates for review; of these, 37 met study design and quality of execution criteria to qualify for final assessment. Twenty-one studies measured absolute differences in tobacco-use prevalence with a median effect of −3.4 percentage points (interquartile interval: −6.3 to −1.4 percentage points). Eleven studies measured differences in tobacco-use cessation among tobacco users exposed to a smokefree policy compared with tobacco users not exposed to a smokefree policy. The median absolute change was an increase in cessation of 6.4 percentage points (interquartile interval: 1.3 to 7.9 percentage points). The qualifying studies provided sufficient evidence that smokefree policies reduce tobacco use among workers when implemented in worksites or by communities. Finally, a systematic economic review identified four studies that, overall, demonstrated economic benefits from a smokefree workplace policy. Additional research is needed to more fully evaluate the total economic effects of these policies.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • National Cancer Institute
        Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the report of the California Environmental Protection Agency.
        USDHHS, NIH, Bethesda MD1999
        • USDHHS
        Reducing tobacco use: a report of the Surgeon General.
        USDHHS, CDC, Office on Smoking and Health, Atlanta GA2000
        • The California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board
        Rulemaking to consider proposed identification of environmental tobacco smoke as a toxic air contaminant.
        • Cameron M.
        • Wakefield M.
        • Trotter L.
        • Inglis G.
        Exposure to secondhand smoke at work: a survey of members of the Australian Liquor, Hospitality and Miscellaneous Workers Union.
        Aust N Z J Public Health. 2003; 27: 496-501
        • Wortley P.M.
        • Caraballo R.S.
        • Pederson L.L.
        • Pechacek T.F.
        Exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace: serum cotinine by occupation.
        J Occup Environ Med. 2002; 44: 503-509
        • Skeer M.
        • Cheng D.M.
        • Rigotti N.A.
        • Siegel M.
        Secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace.
        Am J Prev Med. 2005; 28: 331-337
        • Siegel M.
        • Skeer M.
        Exposure to secondhand smoke and excess lung cancer mortality risk among workers in the “5 B's”: bars, bowling alleys, billiard halls, betting establishments, and bingo parlours.
        Tob Control. 2003; 12: 333-338
        • Gilpin E.A.
        • Pierce J.P.
        The California Tobacco Control Program and potential harm reduction through reduced cigarette consumption in continuing smokers.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2002; 4: S157-S166
        • CDC
        State smoking restrictions for private-sector worksites, restaurants, and bars—U.S., 1998 and 2004.
        MMWR. 2005; 54: 649-653
      1. Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights.
        • Repace J.
        Respirable particles and carcinogens in the air of Delaware hospitality venues before and after a smoking ban.
        J Occup Environ Med. 2004; 46: 887-905
        • Hopkins D.P.
        • Briss P.A.
        • Ricard C.J.
        • et al.
        Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.
        Am J Prev Med. 2001; 20: S16-S66
        • Task Force on Community Preventive Services
        Recommendations regarding interventions to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.
        Am J Prev Med. 2001; 20: S10-S15
        • Broder I.
        • Pilger C.
        • Corey P.
        Environment and well-being before and following smoking ban in office buildings.
        Can J Public Health. 1993; 84: 254-258
        • Borland R.
        • Pierce J.P.
        • Burns D.M.
        • Gilpin E.
        • Johnson M.
        • Bal D.
        Protection from environmental tobacco smoke in California.
        JAMA. 1992; 268: 749-752
        • Brownson R.C.
        • Davis J.R.
        • Jackson-Thompson J.
        • Wilkerson J.C.
        Environmental tobacco smoke awareness and exposure: impact of a statewide clean indoor air law and the report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
        Tob Control. 1995; 4: 132-138
        • Etter J.F.
        • Ronchi A.
        • Perneger T.
        Short-term impact of a university-based smoke free campaign.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999; 53: 710-715
        • Gottlieb N.H.
        • Eriksen M.P.
        • Lovato C.Y.
        • Weinstein R.P.
        • Green L.W.
        Impact of a restrictive work site smoking policy on smoking behavior, attitudes, and norms.
        J Occup Med. 1990; 32: 16-23
        • Millar W.J.
        Evaluation of the impact of smoking restrictions in a government work setting.
        Can J Public Health. 1988; 79: 379-382
        • Patten C.A.
        • Pierce J.P.
        • Cavin S.W.
        • Berry C.
        • Kaplan R.
        Progress in protecting non-smokers from environmental tobacco smoke in California workplaces.
        Tob Control. 1995; 4: 139-144
        • Mullooly J.P.
        • Schuman K.L.
        • Stevens V.J.
        • Glasgow R.E.
        • Vogt T.M.
        Smoking behavior and attitudes of employees of a large HMO before and after a work site ban on cigarette smoking.
        Public Health Rep. 1990; 105: 623-628
        • Stillman F.A.
        • Becker D.M.
        • Swank R.T.
        • et al.
        Ending smoking at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.
        JAMA. 1990; 264: 1565-1569
        • Becker D.M.
        • Conner H.F.
        • Waranch H.R.
        • et al.
        The impact of a total ban on smoking in the Johns Hopkins Children's Center.
        JAMA. 1989; 262: 799-802
      2. Zaza S. Briss P.A. Harris K.W. Task Force on Community Preventive Services. The Guide to Community Preventive Services. What works to promote health? Oxford University Press, New York2005
        • USDHHS
        Healthy People 2010 [conference edition, 2 vols].
        USDHHS, Washington2000
        • Briss P.A.
        • Zaza S.
        • Pappaioanou M.
        • et al.
        Developing an evidence-based Guide to Community Preventive Services—Methods.
        Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18: S35-S43
        • Zaza S.
        • Wright-de Aguero L.K.
        • Briss P.A.
        • et al.
        Data collection instrument and procedures for systematic reviews in the Guide to Community Preventive Services.
        Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18: S44-S74
        • Pisinger C.
        • Vestbo J.
        • Borch-Johnsen K.
        • Jorgensen T.
        Smoking reduction intervention in a large population-based study.
        Prev Med. 2005; 40: 112-118
        • Osinubi O.Y.
        • Sinha S.
        • Rovner E.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of tobacco dependence treatment in the context of a “smokefree grounds” worksite policy: a case study.
        Am J Ind Med. 2004; 46: 180-187
        • Frieden T.R.
        • Mostashari F.
        • Kerker B.D.
        • Miller N.
        • Hajat A.
        • Frankel M.
        Adult tobacco use levels after intensive tobacco control measures: New York City, 2002–2003.
        Am J Public Health. 2005; 95: 1016-1023
        • Burns D.M.
        • Shanks T.G.
        • Major J.M.
        • Gower K.B.
        • Shopland D.R.
        Restrictions on smoking in the workplace. Monograph 12: Population-based smoking cessation. Proceedings of a conference on what works to influence cessation in the general population.
        NIH, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda MD2000
        • Emont S.L.
        • Zahniser S.C.
        • Marcus S.E.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the 1990 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention smokefree policy.
        Am J Health Promot. 1995; 9: 456-461
        • Hammond D.
        • McDonald P.W.
        • Fong G.T.
        • Brown K.S.
        • Cameron R.
        The impact of cigarette warning labels and smokefree bylaws on smoking cessation: Evidence from former smokers.
        Can J Public Health. 2004; 95: 201-204
        • Glasgow R.E.
        • Cummings K.M.
        • Hyland A.
        Relationship of worksite smoking policy to changes in employee tobacco use: findings from COMMIT.
        Tob Control. 1997; 6: S44-S48
        • Heloma A.
        • Jaakkola M.S.
        Four-year follow-up of smoke exposure, attitudes and smoking behaviour following enactment of Finland's national smokefree workplace law.
        Addiction. 2003; 98: 1111-1117
        • Alcouffe J.
        • Fau-Prudhomot P.
        • Manillier P.
        • Lidove E.
        • Monteleon P.Y.
        Smoking among workers from small companies in the Paris area 10 years after the French tobacco law.
        Tob Control. 2003; 12: 239-240
        • Utsunomiya O.
        An epidemiological study on the effectiveness of workplace smoking control programs.
        Keio J Med. 2003; 52: 30-37
        • Longo D.R.
        • Johnson J.C.
        • Kruse R.L.
        • Brownson R.C.
        • Hewett J.E.
        A prospective investigation of the impact of smoking bans on tobacco cessation and relapse.
        Tob Control. 2001; 10: 267-272
        • Moskowitz J.M.
        • Lin Z.
        • Hudes E.S.
        The impact of workplace smoking ordinances in California on smoking cessation.
        Am J Public Health. 2000; 90: 757-761
        • Farrelly M.C.
        • Evans W.N.
        • Sfekas A.E.S.
        The impact of workplace smoking bans: results from a national survey.
        Tob Control. 1999; 8: 272-277
        • Farkas A.J.
        • Gilpin E.A.
        • Distefan J.M.
        • Pierce J.P.
        The effects of household and workplace smoking restrictions on quitting behaviours.
        Tob Control. 1999; 8: 261-265
        • Biener L.
        • Nyman A.L.
        Effect of workplace smoking policies on smoking cessation: results of a longitudinal study.
        J Occup Environ Med. 1999; 41: 1121-1127
        • Borland R.
        • Owen N.
        • Tooley G.
        • Treijs I.
        • Roberts L.
        • Hill D.
        Promoting reduced smoking rates in the context of workplace smoking bans.
        Am J Health Promot. 1999; 14 (ii): 1-3
        • Parry O.
        • Platt S.
        • Thomson C.
        Out of sight, out of mind: workplace smoking bans and the relocation of smoking at work.
        Health Promot Int. 2000; 15: 125-133
        • Willemsen M.C.
        • Vries H.D.
        • Oldenburg B.
        • Van B.
        Impact of a comprehensive worksite smoking cessation programme on employees who do not take part in cessation activities.
        Psychol Health. 1999; 14: 887-895
        • Martin M.J.
        • Silverman M.F.
        The San Francisco experience with regulation of smoking in the workplace: the first twelve months.
        Am J Public Health. 1986; 76: 585-586
        • Offord K.P.
        • Hurt R.D.
        • Berge K.G.
        • Frusti D.K.
        • Schmidt L.
        Effects of the implementation of a smokefree policy in a medical center.
        Chest. 1992; 102: 1531-1536
        • Rosenstock I.M.
        • Stergachis A.
        • Heaney C.
        Evaluation of smoking prohibition policy in a health maintenance organization.
        Am J Public Health. 1986; 76: 1014-1015
        • Sorensen G.
        • Beder B.
        • Prible C.R.
        • Pinney J.
        Reducing smoking at the workplace: implementing a smoking ban and hypnotherapy.
        J Occup Environ Med. 1995; 37: 453-460
        • Stave G.M.
        • Jackson G.W.
        Effect of a total work-site smoking ban on employee smoking and attitudes.
        J Occup Med. 1991; 33: 884-890
        • Stephens T.
        • Pederson L.L.
        • Koval J.J.
        • Kim C.
        The relationship of cigarette prices and no-smoking bylaws to the prevalence of smoking in Canada.
        Am J Public Health. 1997; 87: 1519-1521
        • Sussman S.
        • Pentz M.A.
        • Hahn G.
        The relationship of a worksite no-smoking policy to employee smoking behavior and attitudes.
        Prog Clin Biol Res. 1990; 339: 119-131
        • Wakefield M.A.
        • Wilson D.
        • Owen N.
        • Esterman A.
        • Roberts L.
        Workplace smoking restrictions, occupational status, and reduced cigarette consumption.
        J Occup Med. 1992; 34: 693-697
        • Woodruff T.J.
        • Rosbrook B.
        • Pierce J.
        • Glantz S.A.
        Lower levels of cigarette consumption found in smokefree workplaces in California.
        Arch Intern Med. 1993; 153: 1485-1493
        • Pierce J.P.
        • Gilpin E.A.
        • Farkas A.J.
        Can strategies used by statewide tobacco control programs help smokers make progress in quitting?.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998; 7: 459-464
        • Tsushima W.T.
        • Shimizu A.A.
        Effects of a no-smoking policy upon medical center employees.
        Int J Addict. 1991; 26: 23-28
        • Rigotti N.A.
        • Pikl B.H.
        • Cleary P.
        • Dinger D.E.
        • Mulley A.G.
        The impact of banning smoking on a hospital ward: acceptance, compliance, air quality and smoking behavior.
        Clin Res. 1986; 34: 833A
        • Evans W.N.
        • Farrelly M.C.
        • Montgomery E.
        Do workplace smoking bans reduce smoking?.
        Am Econ Rev. 1999; 89: 728-747
        • Owen N.
        • Borland R.
        Delayed compensatory cigarette consumption after a workplace smoking ban.
        Tob Control. 1997; 6: 131-135
        • Eisner M.D.
        • Smith A.K.
        • Blanc P.D.
        Bartenders' respiratory health after establishment of smokefree bars and taverns.
        JAMA. 1998; 280: 1909-1914
        • Patten C.A.
        • Gilpin E.
        • Cavin S.W.
        • Pierce J.P.
        Workplace smoking policy and changes in smoking behavior in California: a suggested association.
        Tob Control. 1995; 4: 36-41
        • Baile W.F.
        • Gibertini M.
        • Ulschak F.
        • Snow-Antle S.
        • Hann D.
        Impact of a hospital smoking ban: changes in tobacco use and employee attitudes.
        Addict Behav. 1991; 16: 419-426
        • Brenner H.
        • Fleischle B.
        Smoking regulations at the workplace and smoking behavior: a study from southern Germany.
        Prev Med. 1994; 23: 230-234
        • CDC
        Evaluation of an employee smoking policy—Pueblo, Colorado, 1989–90.
        MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 1990; 39: 673-676
        • Daughton D.M.
        • Andrews C.E.
        • Orona C.P.
        • Patil K.D.
        • Rennard S.I.
        Total indoor smoking ban and smoker behavior.
        Prev Med. 1992; 21: 670-676
        • Gomel M.
        • Oldenburg B.
        • Simpson J.M.
        • Owen N.
        Work-site cardiovascular risk reduction: a randomized trial of health risk assessment, education, counseling, and incentives.
        Am J Public Health. 1993; 83: 1231-1238
        • Hudzinski L.G.
        • Frohlich E.D.
        One-year longitudinal study of a no-smoking policy in a medical institution.
        Chest. 1990; 97: 1198-1202
        • Mizoue T.
        • Reijula K.
        • Heloma A.
        • Yamato H.
        • Fujino Y.
        Impact of workplace smoking restrictions on smoking behaviour and attitudes toward quitting in Japan.
        Tob Control. 2000; 9: 435
        • Borland R.
        • Owen N.
        • Hocking B.
        Changes in smoking behaviour after a total workplace smoking ban.
        Aus J Public Health. 1991; 15: 130-134
        • Brenner H.
        • Mielck A.
        Smoking prohibition in the workplace and smoking cessation in the Federal Republic of Germany.
        Prev Med. 1992; 21: 252-261
        • Brigham J.
        • Gross J.
        • Stitzer M.L.
        • Felch L.J.
        Effects of a restricted work-site smoking policy on employees who smoke.
        Am J Public Health. 1994; 84: 773-778
        • Emont S.L.
        • Cummings K.M.
        Using a low-cost, prize-drawing incentive to improve recruitment rate at a work-site smoking cessation clinic.
        J Occup Med. 1992; 34: 771-774
        • Jeffery R.W.
        • Kelder S.H.
        • Forster J.L.
        • French S.A.
        • Lando H.A.
        • Baxter J.E.
        Restrictive smoking policies in the workplace: effects on smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption.
        Prev Med. 1994; 23: 78-82
        • Kinne S.
        • Kristal A.R.
        • White E.
        • Hunt J.
        Work-site smoking policies: their population impact in Washington State.
        Am J Public Health. 1993; 83: 1031-1033
        • Bauer J.E.
        • Hyland A.
        • Li Q.
        • Steger C.
        • Cummings K.M.
        A longitudinal assessment of the impact of smokefree worksite policies on tobacco use.
        Am J Public Health. 2005; 95: 1024-1029
        • Stephens T.
        • Pederson L.L.
        • Koval J.J.
        • Macnab J.
        Comprehensive tobacco control policies and the smoking behaviour of Canadian adults.
        Tob Control. 2001; 10: 317-322
        • Brenner H.
        • Born J.
        • Novak P.
        • Wanek V.
        Smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking regulations and passive smoking in the workplace.
        Prev Med. 1997; 26: 138-143
        • Heloma A.
        • Jaakkola M.S.
        • Kahkonen E.
        • Reijula K.
        The short-term impact of national smokefree workplace legislation on passive smoking and tobacco use.
        Am J Public Health. 2001; 91: 1416-1418
        • Willemsen M.C.
        • Meijer A.
        • Jannink M.
        Applying a contingency model of strategic decision making to the implementation of smoking bans: a case study.
        Health Educ Res. 1999; 14: 519-531
        • Mizoue T.
        • Reijula K.
        • Yamato H.
        • Iwasaki A.
        • Yoshimura T.
        Support for and observance of worksite smoking restriction policies—a study of municipal employees at a city office in Japan.
        Prev Med. 1999; 29: 549-554
        • Longo D.R.
        • Brownson R.C.
        • Johnson J.C.
        • et al.
        Hospital smoking bans and employee smoking behavior: results of a national survey.
        JAMA. 1996; 275: 1252-1257
        • Longo D.R.
        • Feldman M.M.
        • Kruse R.L.
        • Brownson R.C.
        • Petroski G.F.
        • Hewett J.E.
        Implementing smoking bans in American hospitals: results of a national survey.
        Tob Control. 1998; 7: 47-55
        • Stillman F.A.
        • Hantula D.
        • Swank R.T.
        Creating a smokefree hospital: attitudes and smoking behaviors of nurses and physicians.
        Am J Health Promot. 1994; 9: 108-114
        • Hocking B.
        • Borland R.
        • Owen N.
        • Kemp G.
        A total ban on workplace smoking is acceptable and effective.
        J Occup Med. 1991; 33: 163-167
        • Heloma A.
        • Kahkonen E.
        • Kaleva S.
        • Reijula K.
        Smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke at medium-sized and large-scale workplaces.
        Am J Ind Med. 2000; 37: 214-220
        • Olive K.E.
        • Ballard J.A.
        Changes in employee smoking behavior after implementation of restrictive smoking policies.
        Southern Med J. 1996; 89: 699-706
        • Scott C.J.
        • Gerberich S.G.
        Analysis of a smoking policy in the workplace.
        AAOHN J. 1989; 37: 265-273
        • Biener L.
        • Abrams D.B.
        • Emmons K.
        • Follick M.J.
        Evaluating worksite smoking policies.
        New York State J Med. 1989; 89: 5-10
        • Biener L.
        • Abrams D.B.
        • Follick M.J.
        • Dean L.
        A comparative evaluation of a restrictive smoking policy in a general hospital.
        Am J Public Health. 1989; 79: 192-195
        • Pierce J.P.
        • Anderson D.M.
        • Romano R.M.
        • Meissner H.I.
        • Odenkirchen J.C.
        Promoting smoking cessation in the U.S.: effect of public service announcements on the Cancer Information Service telephone line.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992; 84: 677-683
        • Mudarri D.H.
        The costs and benefits of smoking restrictions: an assessment of the SmokeFree Environment Act of 1993 (H.R. 3434).
        Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Indoor Air Division, Washington1994
        • Ong M.K.
        • Glantz S.A.
        Cardiovascular health and economic effects of smokefree workplaces.
        Am J Med. 2004; 117: 32-38
        • Parrott S.
        • Godfrey C.
        • Raw M.
        Costs of employee smoking in the workplace in Scotland.
        Tob Control. 2000; 9: 187-192
        • Ong M.K.
        • Glantz S.A.
        Free nicotine replacement therapy programs vs implementing smokefree workplaces: a cost-effectiveness comparison.
        Am J Public Health. 2005; 95: 969-975
        • Weis W.L.
        Can you afford to hire smokers?.
        Pers Adm. 1981; 26 (75–8): 71-73
      3. Consumer Price Index.
      4. Medical Price Index.
        • WHO
        2005 world development indicators.
        • Guide to Community Preventive Services
        Economic evaluation abstraction form.
        • Carande-Kulis V.G.
        • Maciosek M.V.
        • Briss P.A.
        • et al.
        Methods for systematic reviews of economic evaluations for the Guide to Community Preventive Services.
        Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18: S75-S91
        • Neumann P.J.
        Using cost-effectiveness analysis to improve healthcare: opportunities and barriers.
        Oxford University Press, New York2005
        • Siegel M.
        • Carol J.
        • Jordan J.
        • et al.
        Preemption in tobacco control.
        JAMA. 1997; 278: 858-863
        • CDC
        Preemptive state tobacco-control laws—U.S., 1982–1998.
        MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 1999; 47: 1112-1114
        • CDC
        Preemptive state smokefree indoor air laws—U.S., 1999–2004.
        MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2005; 54: 250-253
        • Ellis G.A.
        • Hobart R.L.
        • Reed D.F.
        Overcoming a powerful tobacco lobby in enacting local smoking ordinances: the Contra Costa County experience.
        J Public Health Policy. 1996; 17: 28-46
        • Champion D.
        • Chapman S.
        Framing pub smoking bans: an analysis of Australian print news media coverage, March 1996–March 2003.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005; 59: 679-684
        • Mandel L.L.
        • Glantz S.A.
        Hedging their bets: tobacco and gambling industries work against smokefree policies.
        Tob Control. 2004; 13: 268-276
        • Morley C.P.
        • Cummings K.M.
        • Hyland A.
        • Giovino G.A.
        • Horan J.K.
        Tobacco Institute lobbying at the state and local levels of government in the 1990s.
        Tob Control. 2002; 11: 102-109
        • Dearlove J.V.
        • Bialous S.A.
        • Glantz S.A.
        Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places.
        Tob Control. 2002; 11: 94-104
        • Ritch W.A.
        • Begay M.E.
        Strange bedfellows: the history of collaboration between the Massachusetts Restaurant Association and the tobacco industry.
        Am J Public Health. 2001; 91: 598-603
        • Pierce J.P.
        • Gilpin E.A.
        A minimum 6-month prolonged abstinence should be required for evaluating smoking cessation trials.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2003; 5: 151-153
        • Brownson R.C.
        • Hopkins D.P.
        • Wakefield M.A.
        Effects of smoking restrictions in the workplace.
        Annu Rev Public Health. 2002; 23: 333-348
        • USDHHS
        Population-based smoking cessation (Monograph 12).
        in: USDHHS, Bethesda MD2005: 1-233
        • Levy D.T.
        • Friend K.B.
        The effects of clean indoor air laws: what do we know and what do we need to know?.
        Health Educ Res. 2003; 18: 592-609
        • Fichtenberg C.M.
        • Glantz S.A.
        Effect of smokefree workplaces on smoking behaviour: systematic review.
        Br Med J. 2002; 325: 188
        • Moher M.
        • Hey K.
        • Lancaster T.
        Workplace interventions for smoking cessation.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; (CD003440)
        • Bourne D.M.
        • Shopland D.R.
        • Anderson C.M.
        • Burns D.M.
        Occupational disparities in smokefree workplace policies in Arkansas.
        J Ark Med Society. 2004; 101: 148-154
        • Guse C.E.
        • Marbella A.M.
        • Layde P.M.
        • Christiansen A.
        • Remington P.
        Clean indoor air policies in Wisconsin workplaces.
        Wis Med J. 2004; 103: 27-31
        • Shopland D.R.
        • Anderson C.M.
        • Burns D.M.
        • Gerlach K.K.
        Disparities in smokefree workplace policies among food service workers.
        J Occup Environ Med. 2004; 46: 347-356
        • Plescia M.
        • Malek S.H.
        • Shopland D.R.
        • Anderson C.M.
        • Burns D.M.
        Protecting workers from secondhand smoke in North Carolina.
        N C Med J. 2005; 66: 186-191