Advertisement

Smoking-Cessation Prevalence Among U.S. Smokers of Menthol Versus Non-Menthol Cigarettes

  • Cristine D. Delnevo
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Cristine D. Delnevo, PhD, MPH, Director and Associate Professor, Center for Tobacco Surveillance and Evaluation Research, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey School of Public Health, 335 George Street, Suite 2100, New Brunswick NJ 08903
    Affiliations
    Center for Tobacco Surveillance and Evaluation Research, School of Public Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey

    Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Daniel A. Gundersen
    Affiliations
    Center for Tobacco Surveillance and Evaluation Research, School of Public Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Mary Hrywna
    Affiliations
    Center for Tobacco Surveillance and Evaluation Research, School of Public Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Sandra E. Echeverria
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey School of Public Health, Piscataway, New Jersey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Michael B. Steinberg
    Affiliations
    Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey

    Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey
    Search for articles by this author

      Background

      The Food and Drug Administration currently is assessing the public health impact of menthol cigarettes. Whether menthol cigarettes pose increased barriers to quitting is a critical issue because previous declines in smoking prevalence have stalled.

      Purpose

      To explore whether menthol cigarette smokers are less likely to quit than non-menthol smokers at the population level and whether this relationship differs by race/ethnicity.

      Methods

      Cross-sectional analyses of the 2003 and 2006/2007 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were conducted in 2010. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds of cessation for menthol smoking relative to non-menthol smoking. Five different sample restrictions were used to assess the robustness of the findings.

      Results

      In the broadest sample restriction, menthol smokers were less likely to have quit smoking (AOR=0.91, 95% CI=0.87, 0.96). This relationship holds among whites (AOR=0.93, 95% CI=0.88, 0.98) and blacks (AOR=0.81, 95% CI=0.67, 0.98). The magnitude of the relationship among Hispanics was similar to that among whites, but differed by Hispanic origin. Among those of Mexican origin, the AOR for menthol smokers was protective but not significant (AOR=1.29, 95% CI=0.99, 1.61), whereas among those of Puerto Rican origin, menthol smokers were less likely to have quit (AOR=0.57, 95% CI=0.37, 0.87). These findings were robust and significant in four of five sample restrictions.

      Conclusions

      Smoking menthol cigarettes is associated with decreased cessation at the population level, and this association is more pronounced among black and Puerto Rican smokers. These findings support the recent calls to ban menthol flavoring in cigarettes.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Okuyemi K.S.
        • Ahluwalia J.S.
        • Ebersole-Robinson M.
        • Catley D.
        • Mayo M.S.
        • Resnicow K.
        Does menthol attenuate the effect of bupropion among African American smokers?.
        Addiction. 2003; 98: 1387-1393
        • Okuyemi K.S.
        • Faseru B.
        • Sanderson Cox L.
        • Bronars C.A.
        • Ahluwalia J.S.
        Relationship between menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation among African American light smokers.
        Addiction. 2007; 102: 1979-1986
        • Gandhi K.K.
        • Foulds J.
        • Steinberg M.B.
        • Lu S.E.
        • Williams J.M.
        Lower quit rates among African American and Latino menthol cigarette smokers at a tobacco treatment clinic.
        Int J Clin Pract. 2009; 63: 360-367
        • Pletcher M.J.
        • Hulley B.J.
        • Houston T.
        • Kiefe C.I.
        • Benowitz N.
        • Sidney S.
        Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.
        Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 1915-1922
        • Fu S.S.
        • Okuyemi K.S.
        • Partin M.R.
        • et al.
        Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation during an aided quit attempt.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2008; 10: 457-462
        • Hyland A.
        • Garten S.
        • Giovino G.A.
        • Cummings K.M.
        Mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation: findings from COMMIT.
        Tob Control. 2002; 11: 135-139
        • Gundersen D.A.
        • Delnevo C.D.
        • Wackowski O.
        Exploring the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation, in a nationally representative sample of adults.
        Prev Med. 2009; 49: 553-557
        • Alexander L.A.
        • Crawford T.
        • Mendiondo M.S.
        Occupational status, work-site cessation programs and policies and menthol smoking on quitting behaviors of U.S. smokers.
        Addiction. 2010; 105: 95-104
        • Cubbin C.
        • Soobader M.J.
        • LeClere F.B.
        The intersection of gender and race/ethnicity in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers in the U.S..
        Addiction. 2010; 105: 32-38
        • Fagan P.
        • Moolchan E.T.
        • Hart Jr, A.
        • et al.
        Nicotine dependence and quitting behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers with similar consumptive patterns.
        Addiction. 2010; 105: 55-74
        • Stahre M.
        • Okuyemi K.S.
        • Joseph A.M.
        • Fu S.S.
        Racial/ethnic differences in menthol cigarette smoking, population quit ratios and utilization of evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments.
        Addiction. 2010; 105: 75-83
        • Trinidad D.R.
        • Perez-Stable E.J.
        • Messer K.
        • White M.M.
        • Pierce J.P.
        Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation among racial/ethnic groups in the U.S..
        Addiction. 2010; 105: 84-94
        • Levy D.
        • Blackman K.
        • Tauras J.
        • et al.
        Quit attempts and quit rates among menthol and nonmenthol smokers in the U.S..
        Am J Public Health. 2011; 101: 1241-1247
        • CDC
        Vital signs: current cigarette smoking among adults aged ≥18 years—U.S., 2009.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010; 59: 1135-1140
        • Suro R.
        • Kocchar R.
        • Passel J.
        • et al.
        The American Community—Hispanics: 2004 American Community Survey Reports.
        U.S. Census Bureau, 2007
        • Perez-Stable E.J.
        • Ramirez A.
        • Villareal R.
        • et al.
        Cigarette smoking behavior among U.S. Latino men and women from different countries of origin.
        Am J Public Health. 2001; 91: 1424-1430
        • Castro Y.
        • Reitzel L.R.
        • Businelle M.S.
        • et al.
        Acculturation differentially predicts smoking cessation among Latino men and women.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 3468-3475
        • Bureau of Labor Statistics and U.S. Census Bureau
        Current population survey: design and methodology.
        U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington DC2002 (Technical paper 63RV)
      1. Bureau of Labor Statistics and U.S. Census Bureau. Current population survey, February, June, and November 2003: Tobacco Use Supplement Technical Documentation.

      2. Bureau of Labor Statistics and U.S. Census Bureau. Current population survey, May 2006, August 2006, and January 2007: tobacco use supplement. Tobacco Use Supplement Technical Documentation.

        • Soulakova J.N.
        • Davis W.W.
        • Hartman A.M.
        • Gibson J.T.
        The impact of survey and response modes on current smoking prevalence estimates using TUS–CPS: 1992–2003.
        Survey Res Methods. 2009; 3: 123-137
        • Delnevo C.D.
        • Hrywna M.
        • Foulds J.
        • Steinberg M.B.
        Cigar use before and after a cigarette excise tax increase in New Jersey.
        Addict Behav. 2004; 29: 1799-1807
        • Ohsfeldt R.L.
        • Boyle R.G.
        • Capilouto E.
        Effects of tobacco excise taxes on the use of smokeless tobacco products in the USA.
        Health Econ. 1997; 6: 525-531
        • Orzechowski W.
        • Walker R.
        The tax burden on tobacco: historical compilation volume 44.
        Tobacco Institute, Arlington VA2009
        • Research Triangle Institute
        SUDAAN user's manual, Release 10.0.
        Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park NC2008
        • West R.
        The clinical significance of “small” effects of smoking cessation treatments.
        Addiction. 2007; 102: 506-509
        • Levy D.
        • Pearson J.
        • Villanti A.
        • et al.
        Modeling the future effects of a menthol ban on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in the U.S..
        Am J Public Health. 2011; 101: 1236-1240
        • Vargas Bustamante A.
        • Chen J.
        • Rodriguez H.P.
        • Rizzo J.A.
        • Ortega A.N.
        Use of preventive care services among Latino subgroups.
        Am J Prev Med. 2010; 38: 610-619
        • U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee
        Report and recommendations on the impact of the use of menthol in cigarettes on the public health.
        • Okuyemi K.S.
        • Ebersole-Robinson M.
        • Nazir N.
        • Ahluwalia J.S.
        African-American menthol and nonmenthol smokers: differences in smoking and cessation experiences.
        J Natl Med Assoc. 2004; 96: 1208-1211
        • Trinidad D.R.
        • Gilpin E.A.
        • White M.M.
        • Pierce J.P.
        Why does adult African-American smoking prevalence in California remain higher than for non-Hispanic whites?.
        Ethn Dis. 2005; 15: 505-511
        • Giovino G.A.
        Epidemiology of tobacco use in the U.S..
        Oncogene. 2002; 21: 7326-7340
        • Patrick D.L.
        • Cheadle A.
        • Thompson D.C.
        • Diehr P.
        • Koepsell T.
        • Kinne S.
        The validity of self-reported smoking: a review and meta-analysis.
        Am J Public Health. 1994; 84: 1086-1093
        • Trinidad D.R.
        • Perez-Stable E.J.
        • Emery S.L.
        • White M.M.
        • Grana R.A.
        • Messer K.S.
        Intermittent and light daily smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the U.S..
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2009; 11: 203-210