Association Between Smokefree Laws and Voluntary Smokefree-Home Rules


      More states and localities are passing restrictions on smoking in public places and workplaces.


      To determine what, if any, association exists between enactment of strong laws making public places or workplaces smokefree on adoption of voluntary smokefree-home policies, particularly whether such laws are associated with increased smoking at home.


      Logistic regressions were used to estimate the OR of a person living with a 100% smokefree-home rule as a function of individual characteristics, household composition, and whether or not the residential region is covered by clean indoor air laws. The data came from successive waves of the Tobacco Use Supplement to Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) for the years 1992–2007, and the American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation database of state and local government clean indoor air laws. Analysis was conducted in 2010 and 2011.


      Living in a county fully covered by a 100% clean indoor air law in workplaces or restaurants or bars is associated with an increased likelihood of having a voluntary 100% smokefree-home rule both for people living with smokers (OR=7.76, 95% CI=5.27, 11.43) and not living with smokers (OR=4.12, 95% CI=3.28, 5.16).


      Strong clean indoor air laws are associated with large increases in voluntary smokefree-home policies both in the homes with and without smokers. These results support the hypothesis of norm spreading of clean indoor air laws.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • DHHS
        The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the Surgeon General.
        DHHS, CDC, Atlanta GA2006
        • CDC
        Vital signs: nonsmokers' exposure to secondhand smoke—U.S., 1999–2008.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010; 59: 1141-1146
        • USDHHS
        Healthy People 2020.
        • Jarvis M.
        • Sims M.
        • Gilmore A.
        • Mindell J.
        Impact of smoke-free legislation on children's exposure to secondhand smoke: cotinine data from the Health Survey for England.
        Tob Control. 2011;
        • Behm I.
        • Kabir Z.
        • Connolly G.
        • Alpert H.
        Increasing prevalence of smoke-free homes and decreasing rates of sudden infant death syndrome in the U.S.: an ecological association study.
        Tob Control. 2011;
        • Dove M.
        • Dockert D.
        • Connolly G.
        Smoke-free air laws and secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking youth.
        Pediatrics. 2010; 126: 80-87
        • Mills A.L.
        • Messer K.M.
        • Gilpin E.A.
        • Pierce J.P.
        The effect of smoke-free homes on adult smoking behavior: a review.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2009; 11: 1131-1141
        • Farkas A.J.
        • Gilpin E.A.
        • White M.M.
        • Pierce J.P.
        Association between household and workplace smoking restrictions and adolescent smoking.
        JAMA. 2000; 284: 717-722
        • Adda J.
        • Comaglia F.
        The effect of bans and taxes on passive smoking.
        Am Econ J. 2010; 2: 1-32
        • Fong G.T.
        • Hyland A.
        • Borland R.
        • et al.
        Reductions in tobacco smoke pollution and increases in support for smoke-free public places following the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland: findings from the ITC Ireland/UK Survey.
        Tob Control. 2006; 15: iii51-iii58
        • Akhtar P.C.
        • Haw S.J.
        • Currie D.B.
        • Zachary R.
        • Currie C.E.
        Smoking restrictions in the home and secondhand smoke exposure among primary schoolchildren before and after introduction of the Scottish smoke-free legislation.
        Tob Control. 2009; 18: 409-415
        • Borland R.
        • Mullins R.
        • Trotter L.
        • White V.
        Trends in environmental tobacco smoke restrictions in the home in Victoria, Australia.
        Tob Control. 1999; 8: 266-271
        • U.S. Census Bureau
        Technical documentation: current population survey.
        • Bureau USC
        American FactFinder.
        • DeCicca P.
        • Kenkel D.
        • Mathios A.
        • Shin Y.-J.
        • Lim J.-Y.
        Youth smoking, cigarette prices, and anti-smoking sentiment.
        Health Econ. 2008; 17: 733-749
        • Gilpin E.
        • Lee L.
        • Pierce J.
        Changes in population attitudes about where smoking should not be allowed: California versus the rest of the USA.
        Tob Control. 2004; 13: 38-44
        • Alamar B.
        • Glantz S.A.
        Effect of increased social unacceptability of cigarette smoking on reduction in cigarette consumption.
        Am J Public Health. 2006; 96: 1359-1363
        • Bertrand M.
        • Duflo E.
        • Mullaninathan S.
        How much should we trust difference in differences estimates?.
        Q J Econ. 2004; 119: 249-275
        • Borland R.
        • Yong H.H.
        • Cummings K.M.
        • Hyland A.
        • Anderson S.
        • Fong G.T.
        Determinants and consequences of smoke-free homes: findings from the international tobacco control (ITC) four country survey.
        Tob Control. 2006; 15: iii42-iii50
        • Hersch J.
        • Rossi A.
        • Viscusi W.K.
        Voter preferences and state regulation of smoking.
        Econ Inquiry. 2004; 42: 455-468
        • Gorber S.
        • Schofield-Hurwitz S.
        • Hardt J.
        • Levasseur G.
        • Tremblay M.
        The accuracy of self-reported smoking: a systematic review of the relationship between self-reported and cotinine-assessed smoking status.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2009; 11: 12-24
        • Hatfield P.
        • Staresinic A.
        • Sorkness C.
        • Peterson N.
        • Schirmer J.
        • Katcher M.
        Validating self reported home safety practices in a culturally diverse non-inner city population.
        Injury Prev. 2006; 12: 52-57
        • Watson M.
        • Kendrick D.
        • Coupland C.
        Validation of a home safety questionnaire used in a randomised controlled trial.
        Inj Prev. 2003; 9: 180-183
        • Robertson A.
        • Rivara F.
        • Ebel B.
        • Lymp J.
        • Christakis D.
        Validation of parent self reported home safety practices.
        Inj Prev. 2005; 11: 209-212