Advertisement

Change in Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Weight Gain

Dallas Heart Study

      Introduction

      Despite a proposed connection between neighborhood environment and obesity, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, as defined by moving between neighborhoods, and change in body weight. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between moving to more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and weight gain as a cardiovascular risk factor.

      Methods

      Weight (kilograms) was measured in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic cohort aged 18–65 years, at baseline (2000–2002) and 7-year follow-up (2007–2009, N=1,835). Data were analyzed in 2013–2014. Geocoded addresses were linked to Dallas County, TX, census block groups. A block group-level neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created. Multilevel difference-in-difference models with random effects and a Heckman correction factor (HCF) determined weight change relative to NDI change.

      Results

      Forty-nine percent of the DHS population moved (263 to higher NDI, 586 to lower NDI, 47 within same NDI), with blacks more likely to move than whites or Hispanics (p<0.01), but similar baseline BMI and waist circumference were observed in movers versus non-movers (p>0.05). Adjusting for HCF, sex, race, and time-varying covariates, those who moved to areas of higher NDI gained more weight compared to those remaining in the same or moving to a lower NDI (0.64 kg per 1-unit NDI increase, 95% CI=0.09, 1.19). Impact of NDI change on weight gain increased with time (p=0.03).

      Conclusions

      Moving to more–socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods was associated with weight gain among DHS participants.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Sallis J.F.
        • Floyd M.F.
        • Rodríguez D.A.
        • Saelens B.E.
        Role of built environments in physical activity, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
        Circulation. 2012; 125: 729-737https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.969022
        • Black J.L.
        • Macinko J.
        The changing distribution and determinants of obesity in the neighborhoods of New York City, 2003-2007.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2010; 171: 765-775https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp458
        • Corsi D.J.
        • Finlay J.E.
        • Subramanian S.V.
        Weight of communities: a multilevel analysis of body mass index in 32,814 neighborhoods in 57 low- to middle-income countries (LMICs).
        Soc Sci Med. 2012; 75: 311-322https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.02.014
        • Laraia B.A.
        • Karter A.J.
        • Warton E.M.
        • Schillinger D.
        • Moffet H.H.
        • Adler N.
        Place matters: neighborhood deprivation and cardiometabolic risk factors in the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE).
        Soc Sci Med. 2012; 74: 1082-1090https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.11.036
        • Lovasi G.S.
        • Neckerman K.M.
        • Quinn J.W.
        • Weiss C.C.
        • Rundle A.
        Effect of individual or neighborhood disadvantage on the association between neighborhood walkability and body mass index.
        Am J Public Health. 2009; 99: 279-284https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.138230
        • Mujahid M.S.
        • Diez Roux A.V.
        • Borrell L.N.
        • Nieto F.J.
        Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of BMI with socioeconomic characteristics.
        Obes Res. 2005; 13: 1412-1421https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2005.171
        • Berry T.R.
        • Spence J.C.
        • Blanchard C.M.
        • Cutumisu N.
        • Edwards J.
        • Selfridge G.
        A longitudinal and cross-sectional examination of the relationship between reasons for choosing a neighbourhood, physical activity and body mass index.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010; 7: 57https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-7-57
        • Inagami S.
        • Cohen D.A.
        • Finch B.K.
        Non-residential neighborhood exposures suppress neighborhood effects on self-rated health.
        Soc Sci Med. 2007; 65: 1779-1791https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.05.051
        • Ewing R.
        • Brownson R.C.
        • Berrigan D.
        Relationship between urban sprawl and weight of United States youth.
        Am J Prev Med. 2006; 31: 464-474https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2006.08.020
        • Lee I.M.
        • Ewing R.
        • Sesso H.D.
        The built environment and physical activity levels: the Harvard Alumni Health Study.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: 293-298https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2009.06.007
        • Ludwig J.
        • Sanbonmatsu L.
        • Gennetian L.
        • et al.
        Neighborhoods, obesity, and diabetes—a randomized social experiment.
        N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 1509-1519https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa1103216
        • Do D.P.
        • Diez Roux A.V.
        • Hajat A.
        • et al.
        Circadian rhythm of cortisol and neighborhood characteristics in a population-based sample: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
        Health Place. 2011; 17: 625-632https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.12.019
        • Karb R.A.
        • Elliott M.R.
        • Dowd J.B.
        • Morenoff J.D.
        Neighborhood-level stressors, social support, and diurnal patterns of cortisol: the Chicago Community Adult Health Study.
        Soc Sci Med. 2012; 75: 1038-1047https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.03.031
        • Nazmi A.
        • Diez Roux A.
        • Ranjit N.
        • Seeman T.E.
        • Jenny N.S.
        Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of neighborhood characteristics with inflammatory markers: findings from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
        Health Place. 2010; 16: 1104-1112https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.07.001
        • Ding D.
        • Gebel K.
        Built environment, physical activity, and obesity: what have we learned from reviewing the literature?.
        Health Place. 2012; 18: 100-105https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.08.021
        • Victor R.G.
        • Haley R.W.
        • Willett D.L.
        • et al.
        The Dallas Heart Study: a population-based probability sample for the multidisciplinary study of ethnic differences in cardiovascular health.
        Am J Cardiol. 2004; 93: 1473-1480https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.02.058
        • Powell-Wiley T.M.
        • Ayers C.
        • Agyemang P.
        • et al.
        Neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation predicts weight gain in a multi-ethnic population: longitudinal data from the Dallas Heart Study.
        Prev Med. 2014; 66: 22-27https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.05.011
        • Sampson R.J.
        • Raudenbush S.W.
        • Earls F.
        Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy.
        Science. 1997; 277: 918-924https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5328.918
        • Powell-Wiley T.M.
        • Ayers C.R.
        • de Lemos J.A.
        • et al.
        Relationship between perceptions about neighborhood environment and prevalent obesity: data from the Dallas Heart Study.
        Obesity. 2013; 21: E14-E21https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20012
        • Chasan-Taber S.
        • Rimm E.B.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • et al.
        Reproducibility and validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire for male health professionals.
        Epidemiology. 1996; 7: 81-86https://doi.org/10.1097/00001648-199601000-00014
        • Lian M.
        • Schootman M.
        • Doubeni C.A.
        • et al.
        Geographic variation in colorectal cancer survival and the role of small-area socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel survival analysis of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study Cohort.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2011; 174: 828-838https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwr162
        • Messer L.C.
        • Laraia B.A.
        • Kaufman J.S.
        • et al.
        The development of a standardized neighborhood deprivation index.
        J Urban Health. 2006; 83: 1041-1062https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-006-9094-x
        • Craig P.
        • Cooper C.
        • Gunnell D.
        • et al.
        Using natural experiments to evaluate population health interventions: new Medical Research Council guidance.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012; 66: 1182-1186https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2011-200375
        • Greene W.H.
        Sample selection bias as a specification error: a comment.
        Econometrica. 1981; 49: 795-798https://doi.org/10.2307/1911523
        • Heckman J.
        • Ichimura H.
        • Smith J.
        • Todd P.
        Characterizing selection bias using experimental data.
        Econometrica. 1998; 66: 1017-1098https://doi.org/10.2307/2999630
        • Heckman J.J.
        Sample selection bias as a specification error.
        Econometrica. 1979; 47: 153-161https://doi.org/10.2307/1912352
        • Miller G.E.
        • Chen E.
        • Fok A.K.
        • et al.
        Low early-life social class leaves a biological residue manifested by decreased glucocorticoid and increased proinflammatory signaling.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009; 106: 14716-14721https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0902971106
        • Siervo M.
        • Wells J.C.
        • Cizza G.
        The contribution of psychosocial stress to the obesity epidemic: an evolutionary approach.
        Horm Metab Res. 2009; 41: 261-270https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1119377
        • Casagrande S.S.
        • Gittelsohn J.
        • Zonderman A.B.
        • Evans M.K.
        • Gary-Webb T.L.
        Association of walkability with obesity in Baltimore City, Maryland.
        Am J Public Health. 2011; 101: S318-S324https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.187492
        • Stafford M.
        • Brunner E.J.
        • Head J.
        • Ross N.A.
        Deprivation and the development of obesity: a multilevel, longitudinal study in England.
        Am J Prev Med. 2010; 39: 130-139https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2010.03.021
        • Ellaway A.
        • Benzeval M.
        • Green M.
        • Leyland A.
        • Macintyre S.
        "Getting sicker quicker": does living in a more deprived neighbourhood mean your health deteriorates faster?.
        Health Place. 2012; 18: 132-137https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.08.005
        • Halonen J.I.
        • Kivimaki M.
        • Pentti J.
        • et al.
        Quantifying neighbourhood socioeconomic effects in clustering of behaviour-related risk factors: a multilevel analysis.
        PLoS One. 2012; 7: e32937https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032937
        • Astell-Burt T.
        • Feng X.
        • Kolt G.S.
        Greener neighborhoods, slimmer people? Evidence from 246,920 Australians.
        Int J Obes (Lond). 2014; 38: 156-159https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2013.64
        • Navalpotro L.
        • Regidor E.
        • Ortega P.
        • Martínez D.
        • Villanueva R.
        • Astasio P.
        Area-based socioeconomic environment, obesity risk behaviours, area facilities and childhood overweight and obesity: socioeconomic environment and childhood overweight.
        Prev Med. 2012; 55: 102-107https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.05.012
        • Stimpson J.P.
        • Ju H.
        • Raji M.A.
        • Eschbach K.
        Neighborhood deprivation and health risk behaviors in NHANES III.
        Am J Health Behav. 2007; 31: 215-222https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.31.2.10
        • Boone-Heinonen J.
        • Diez-Roux A.V.
        • Goff D.C.
        • et al.
        The neighborhood energy balance equation: does neighborhood food retail environment + physical activity environment = obesity? The CARDIA Study.
        PLoS One. 2013; 8: e85141https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085141
        • Gebel K.
        • Bauman A.E.
        • Sugiyama T.
        • Owen N.
        Mismatch between perceived and objectively assessed neighborhood walkability attributes: prospective relationships with walking and weight gain.
        Health Place. 2011; 17: 519-524https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.12.008
        • Gustat J.
        • O׳Malley K.
        • Hu T.
        • et al.
        Support for physical activity policies and perceptions of work and neighborhood environments: variance by BMI and activity status at the county and individual levels.
        Am J Health Promot. 2014; 28: S33-S43https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.130430-QUAN-216
        • Sullivan S.M.
        • Brashear M.M.
        • Broyles S.T.
        • Rung A.L.
        Neighborhood environments and obesity among Afro-Caribbean, African American, and Non-Hispanic white adults in the United States: results from the National Survey of American Life.
        Prev Med. 2014; 61: 1-5https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.12.023
        • Bailey E.J.
        • Malecki K.C.
        • Engelman C.D.
        • et al.
        Predictors of discordance between perceived and objective neighborhood data.
        Ann Epidemiol. 2014; 24: 214-221https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.12.007
        • Steptoe A.
        • Hackett R.A.
        • Lazzarino A.I.
        • et al.
        Disruption of multisystem response to stress in type 2 diabetes: Investigating the dynamics of allostatic load.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111: 15693-15698https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1410401111
        • Zick C.D.
        • Hanson H.
        • Fan J.X.
        • et al.
        Re-visiting the relationship between neighbourhood environment and BMI: an instrumental variables approach to correcting for residential selection bias.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013; 10: 27https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-27
        • Smith K.R.
        • Zick C.D.
        • Kowaleski-Jones L.
        • Brown B.B.
        • Fan J.X.
        • Yamada I.
        Effects of neighborhood walkability on healthy weight: assessing selection and causal influences.
        Soc Sci Res. 2011; 40: 1445-1455https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2011.04.009
        • Diez Roux A.V.
        Estimating neighborhood health effects: the challenges of causal inference in a complex world.
        Soc Sci Med. 2004; 58: 1953-1960https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00414-3

      Linked Article