Advertisement

A First Look at Gender Inequality as a Societal Risk Factor for Dating Violence

      Introduction

      One of ten U.S. high school students is a victim of adolescent dating violence (ADV). Understanding ADV risk factors guides prevention efforts; however, research examining community- and societal-level risk factors is scant. Societal gender inequality is a known risk factor for violence against women, but has yet to be explored in relation to ADV. This study aims to determine whether the Gender Inequality Index (GII) correlates with levels of physical and sexual ADV victimization across U.S. states.

      Methods

      State-representative prevalence rates of self-reported physical and sexual ADV victimization were obtained from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The state GII includes five indicators: (1) maternal mortality; (2) adolescent birth rate; (3) government representation; (4) educational attainment; and (5) labor force participation. Pearson correlation coefficients determined the association between physical and sexual ADV victimization, the GII, and GII indicators. Analyses were conducted in August 2014.

      Results

      Among U.S. states, the prevalence of physical ADV victimization in 2013 ranged from 7.0% to 14.8%, and the prevalence of sexual ADV victimization ranged from 7.8% to 13.8%. The GII was significantly associated with the state prevalence of female physical ADV victimization (r=0.48, p<0.01) but not female sexual ADV victimization. Neither physical nor sexual male ADV victimization was associated with the GII.

      Conclusions

      This exploratory study suggests that gender inequality may be a societal-level risk factor for female physical ADV victimization. As ADV prevention strategies are implemented at the state level, further research examining the effect of gender inequality on ADV is needed.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Kann L.
        • Kinchen S.
        • Shanklin S.L.
        • et al.
        Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2013.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2014; 63: 1-168
        • Ackard D.M.
        • Neumark-Sztainer D.
        Date violence and date rape among adolescents: associations with disordered eating behaviors and psychological health.
        Child Abuse Negl. 2002; 26: 455-473https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(02)00322-8
        • Banyard V.L.
        • Cross C.
        Consequences of teen dating violence: understanding intervening variables in ecological context.
        Violence Against Women. 2008; 14: 998-1013https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801208322058
        • Brown A.
        • Cosgrave E.
        • Killackey E.
        • Purcell R.
        • Buckby J.
        • Yung A.R.
        The longitudinal association of adolescent dating violence with psychiatric disorders and functioning.
        J Interpers Violence. 2009; 24: 1964-1979https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260508327700
        • Glass N.
        • Fredland N.
        • Campbell J.
        • Yonas M.
        • Sharps P.
        • Kub J.
        Adolescent dating violence: prevalence, risk factors, health outcomes, and implications for clinical practice.
        J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2003; 32: 227-238https://doi.org/10.1177/0884217503252033
        • Silverman J.G.
        • Raj A.
        • Mucci L.A.
        • Hathaway J.E.
        Dating violence against adolescent girls and associated substance use, unhealthy weight control, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy, and suicidality.
        JAMA. 2001; 286: 572-579https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.286.5.572
        • Exner-Cortens D.
        • Eckenrode J.
        • Rothman E.
        Longitudinal associations between teen dating violence victimization and adverse health outcomes.
        Pediatrics. 2013; 131: 71-78https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1029
        • Wingood G.M.
        • DiClemente R.J.
        • McCree D.H.
        • Harrington K.
        • Davies S.L.
        Dating violence and the sexual health of black adolescent females.
        Pediatrics. 2001; 107: e72https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.107.5.e72
        • Swahn M.H.
        • Simon T.R.
        • Hertz M.F.
        • et al.
        Linking dating violence, peer violence, and suicidal behaviors among high-risk youth.
        Am J Prev Med. 2008; 34: 30-38https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2007.09.020
        • Vagi K.J.
        • Rothman E.F.
        • Latzman N.E.
        • Tharp A.T.
        • Hall D.M.
        • Breiding M.J.
        Beyond correlates: a review of risk and protective factors for adolescent dating violence perpetration.
        J Youth Adolesc. 2013; 42: 633-649https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-9907-7
        • Champion H.
        • Foley K.L.
        • Sigmon-Smith K.
        • Sutfin E.L.
        • DuRant R.H.
        Contextual factors and health risk behaviors associated with date fighting among high school students.
        Women Health. 2008; 47: 1-22https://doi.org/10.1080/03630240802132286
        • Foshee V.A.
        • McNaughton Reyes H.L.
        • Ennett S.T.
        • et al.
        Risk and protective factors distinguishing profiles of adolescent peer and dating violence perpetration.
        J Adolesc Health. 2011; 48: 344-350https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.07.030
        • Jain S.
        • Buka S.L.
        • Subramanian S.V.
        • Molnar B.E.
        Neighborhood predictors of dating violence victimization and perpetration in young adulthood: a multilevel study.
        Am J Public Health. 2010; 100: 1737-1744https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.169730
        • Rothman E.
        • Johnson R.
        • Young R.
        • Weinberg J.
        • Azrael D.
        • Molnar B.
        Neighborhood-level factors associated with physical dating violence perpetration: results of a representative survey conducted in Boston, MA.
        J Urban Health. 2011; 88: 201-213https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-011-9543-z
      1. WHO. Promoting gender equality to prevent violence against women. Geneva; 2009. www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/gender.pdf. Accessed September 21, 2014.

        • Dobash RE
        • Dobash R.
        Violence Against Wives: A Case Against the Patriarchy.
        Free Press, New York1979
        • Dobash R.E.
        Women, Violence, and Social Change.
        Psychology Press, London1992https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203450734
        • Bradley K.
        • Khor D.
        Toward an integration of theory and research on the status of women.
        Gend Soc. 1993; 7: 347-378https://doi.org/10.1177/089124393007003003
        • Tharp A.T.
        • DeGue S.
        • Valle L.A.
        • Brookmeyer K.A.
        • Massetti G.M.
        • Matjasko J.L.
        A systematic qualitative review of risk and protective factors for sexual violence perpetration.
        Trauma Violence Abuse. 2013; 14: 133-167https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838012470031
        • Foshee V.A.
        • Karriker-Jaffe K.J.
        • Reyes H.L.M.
        • et al.
        What accounts for demographic differences in trajectories of adolescent dating violence? An examination of intrapersonal and contextual mediators.
        J Adolesc Health. 2008; 42: 596-604https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.11.005
        • Foshee V.A.
        • Benefield T.S.
        • Ennett S.T.
        • Bauman K.E.
        • Suchindran C.
        Longitudinal predictors of serious physical and sexual dating violence victimization during adolescence.
        Prev Med. 2004; 39: 1007-1016https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.04.014
        • Reed E.
        • Raj A.
        • Miller E.
        • Silverman J.G.
        Losing the “gender” in gender-based violence: the missteps of research on dating and intimate partner violence.
        Violence Women. 2010; 16: 348-354https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801209361127
        • Das M.
        • Ghosh S.
        • Verma R.
        • et al.
        Gender attitudes and violence among urban adolescent boys in India.
        Int J Adolesc Youth. 2012; 19: 99-112https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2012.716762
        • Lichter E.L.
        • McCloskey L.A.
        The effects of childhood exposure to marital violence on adolescent gender-role beliefs and dating violence.
        Psychol Women Q. 2004; 28: 344-357https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2004.00151.x
        • McCauley H.L.
        • Tancredi D.J.
        • Silverman J.G.
        • et al.
        Gender-equitable attitudes, bystander behavior, and recent abuse perpetration against heterosexual dating partners of male high school athletes.
        Am J Public Health. 2013; 103: 1882-1887https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301443
        • Yllo K.
        • Straus M.A.
        Patriarchy and violence against wives: the impact of structural and normative factors.
        in: Straus M.A. Gelles R.J. Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ1990
        • Straus M.A.
        State-to-state differences in social inequality and social bonds in relation to assaults on wives in the United States.
        J Comp Fam Stud. 1994; 25: 7-24
      2. UN Development Program. 2013 Human Development Report: the rise of the South: human progress in a diverse world. New York, NY: UNDP; 2013. http://hdr.undp.org/en/2013-report. Accessed September 21, 2014.

        • Brener N.D.
        • Kann L.
        • Shanklin S.
        • et al.
        Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System—2013.
        MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013; 62: 1-20
        • Callaghan W.M.
        Overview of maternal mortality in the United States.
        Semin Perinatol. 2012; 36: 2-6https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semperi.2011.09.002
        • Martin J.A.
        • Hamilton B.E.
        • Osterman M.J.K.
        • Curtin S.C.
        • Mathews T.J.
        Births: final data for 2012.
        Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2013; 62: 1-86
      3. Center for American Women and Politics. Fact sheet: women in state legislatures 2012. New Brunswick, NJ; 2012. www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/levels_of_office/documents/stleg12.pdf. Accessed September 21, 2014.

      4. U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey: American FactFinder: 2010-2012, 3-Year Estimates. 2013. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/searchresults.xhtml?refresh=t. Accessed September 21, 2014.

        • Yodanis C.L.
        Gender inequality, violence against women, and fear.
        J Interpers Violence. 2004; 19: 655-675https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260504263868
        • Foshee V.A.
        • Bauman K.E.
        • Arriaga X.B.
        • Helms R.W.
        • Koch G.G.
        • Linder G.F.
        An evaluation of Safe Dates, an adolescent dating violence prevention program.
        Am J Public Health. 1998; 88: 45-50https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.1.45
        • Wolfe D.A.
        • Crooks C.
        • Jaffe P.
        • et al.
        A school-based program to prevent adolescent dating violence: a cluster randomized trial.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009; 163: 692-699https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.69
        • Miller E.
        • Tancredi D.J.
        • McCauley H.L.
        • et al.
        One-year follow-up of a coach-delivered dating violence prevention program: a cluster randomized controlled trial.
        Am J Prev Med. 2013; 45: 108-112https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2013.03.007
      5. CDC. The DELTA FOCUS program: intimate partner violence is preventable. Atlanta, GA: 2015. www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/deltafocus/. Accessed April 2, 2015.

      6. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. Coordination of policies and programs to promote gender equality and empower women and girls globally. Washington, DC: 2013. www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/01/30/presidential-memorandum-coordination-policies-and-programs-promote-gende. Accessed September 21, 2014.

        • Shorey R.C.
        • Cornelius T.L.
        • Bell K.M.
        A critical review of theoretical frameworks for dating violence: comparing the dating and marital fields.
        Aggress Violent Behav. 2008; 13: 185-194https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2008.03.003
        • Cohen J.
        • Cohen P.
        • West S.G.
        • Aiken L.S.
        Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences.
        3rd ed. Routledge, New York2003