Advertisement

McDonald’s Restaurants and Neighborhood Deprivation in Scotland and England

      Background

      Features of the local fast food environment have been hypothesized to contribute to the greater prevalence of obesity in deprived neighborhoods. However, few studies have investigated whether fast food outlets are more likely to be found in poorer areas, and those that have are local case studies. In this paper, using national-level data, we examine the association between neighborhood deprivation and the density of McDonald’s restaurants in small census areas (neighborhoods) in Scotland and England.

      Methods

      Data on population, deprivation, and the location of McDonald’s Restaurants were obtained for 38,987 small areas in Scotland and England (6505 “data zones” in Scotland, and 32,482 “super output areas” in England) in January 2005. Measures of McDonald’s restaurants per 1000 people for each area were calculated, and areas were divided into quintiles of deprivation. Associations between neighborhood deprivation and outlet density were examined during February 2005, using one-way analysis of variance in Scotland, England, and both countries combined.

      Results

      Statistically significant positive associations were found between neighborhood deprivation and the mean number of McDonald’s outlets per 1000 people for Scotland (p<0.001), England (p<0.001), and both countries combined (p<0.001). These associations were broadly linear with greater mean numbers of outlets per 1000 people occurring as deprivation levels increased.

      Conclusions

      Observed associations between presence or absence of fast food outlets and neighborhood deprivation may provide support for environmental explanations for the higher prevalence of obesity in poor neighborhoods.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Prentice A.M.
        • Jebb S.A.
        Obesity in Britain.
        BMJ. 1995; 311;: 437-439
        • Tremblay M.S.
        • Williams J.D.
        Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity?.
        Int J Obes. 2003; 27: 1100-1105
        • Hill J.
        • Peters J.
        Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic.
        Science. 1998; 280: 1371-1374
        • Davison K.K.
        • Birch L.L.
        Childhood overweight.
        Obes Rev. 2001; 2: 159-171
        • van Lenthe F.J.
        • Mackenbach J.P.
        Neighbourhood deprivation and overweight.
        Int J Obes. 2002; 26;: 234-240
        • Ellaway A.
        • Anderson A.
        • Macintyre S.
        Does area of residence affect body size and shape?.
        Int J Obes. 1997; 21: 304-308
        • Sundquist J.
        • Malmstrom M.
        • Johansson S.E.
        Cardiovascular risk factors and the neighourhood environment.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1999; 28: 841-845
        • French S.
        • Harnack L.
        • Jeffery R.
        Fast food restaurant use among women in the Pound of Prevention study. Dietary, behavioral and demographic correlates.
        Int J Obes. 2000; 24: 1353-1359
        • Jeffrey R.
        • French S.
        Epidemic obesity in the United States.
        Am J Public Health. 1998; 88: 277-280
        • Reidpath D.D.
        • Burns C.
        • Garrard J.
        • Mahoney M.
        • Townsend M.
        An ecological study of the relationship between social and environmental determinants of obesity.
        Health Place. 2002; 8: 141-145
        • Block J.P.
        • Scribner R.A.
        • DeSalvo K.B.
        Fast food, race/ethnicity and income. A geographic analysis.
        Am J Prev Med. 2004; 27: 211-217
      1. Yell Limited Yell.com. Available at: www.yell.com. Accessed January 10, 2005.

      2. Scottish Government. Scottish neighbourhood statistics data zones 2004. Available at: www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/society/sndata-02.asp. Accessed January 26, 2005.

      3. Edinburgh University Data Library/Joint Information Systems Council (JISC). EDINA Postcode Directory. Available at: http://borders.edina.ac.uk/ukborders/restricted/pcluts_download/pcluts_2005feb.html. Accessed January 14, 2005.

      4. Scottish Government. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004. Available at: www.scotland.gov.uk/stats/simd2004. Accessed January 26, 2005.

        • Office for the Deputy Prime Minister
        English Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004. Office for the Deputy Prime Minister, London2004 (CD-ROM)
      5. Winkler E, Turrell G, Patterson C. Does living in a disadvantaged are mean fewer opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in the are? Findings from the Brisbane Food Study. Health Place 2005 (in press).

        • Office for the Deputy Prime Minister
        The English indices of multiple deprivation 2004 (revised). Neighbourhood Renewal Unit, London2004 (CD-ROM)
      6. Scottish Government. Scottish deprivation maps (IMD). Available at: www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/social/siod-24.asp. Accessed March 10, 2005.

      7. National Statistics. Census area statistics: population density by English super output area 2001. Available at: http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Accessed January 18, 2005.