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Geographic Patterns of Frequent Mental Distress

U.S. Adults, 1993–2001 and 2003–2006

      Background

      Mental illnesses and other mental health problems often lead to prolonged, disabling, and costly mental distress. Yet little is known about the geographic distribution of such mental distress in the U.S.

      Methods

      Since 1993, the CDC has tracked self-perceived mental distress through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). In 2007 and 2008, analysis was performed on BRFSS data reported by 2.4 million adults from 1993–2001 and 2003–2006 to map and describe the prevalence of frequent mental distress (FMD)—defined as having ≥14 mentally unhealthy days during the previous 30 days—for all states and for counties with at least 30 respondents.

      Results

      The adult prevalence of FMD for the combined periods was 9.4% overall, ranging from 6.6% in Hawaii to 14.4% in Kentucky. From 1993–2001 to 2003–2006, the mean prevalence of FMD increased by at least 1 percentage point in 27 states and by more than 4 percentage points in Mississippi, Oklahoma, and West Virginia. Most states showed internal geographic variations in FMD prevalence. The Appalachian and the Mississippi Valley regions had high and increasing FMD prevalence, and the upper Midwest had low and decreasing FMD prevalence.

      Conclusions

      Geographic areas were identified with consistently high and consistently low FMD prevalence, as well as areas in which FMD prevalence changed substantially. Further evaluation of the causes and implications of these patterns is warranted. Surveillance of mental distress may be useful in identifying unmet mental health needs and disparities and in guiding health-related policies and interventions.
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