Advertisement

Making Evidence from Research More Relevant, Useful, and Actionable in Policy, Program Planning, and Practice

Slips “Twixt Cup and Lip”
      The apparent loss of evidence between production and implementation has become a concern of legislators, research funding agencies, academic institutions, and professional associations alike. Researchers and journal reviewers exacerbate this slippage by emphasizing internal validity, often at the expense of the contextual factors that make science relevant to practice. As illustrated by the papers in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine,
      • Horowitz C.R.
      • Brenner B.L.
      • Lachapelle S.
      • Amara D.A.
      • Arniella G.
      Effective recruitment of minority populations through community-led strategies.
      • Bazzano A.T.
      • Zeldin A.S.
      • Diab I.R.S.
      • Garro N.M.
      • Allevato N.
      • Lehrer D.
      WRC Project Oversight Team
      The healthy lifestyle change program: a pilot of a community-based health promotion intervention for adults with developmental disabilities.
      • Cordasco K.M.
      • Asch S.M.
      • Bell D.S.
      • et al.
      A low-literacy medication education tool for safety-net hospital patients.
      • Shetgiri R.
      • Kataoka S.
      • Ryan G.W.
      • Askew L.M.
      • Chung P.J.
      • Schuster M.A.
      Risk and resilience in Latinos: a community-based participatory research study.
      • Kataoka S.H.
      • Nadeem E.
      • Wong M.
      • et al.
      Improving disaster mental health care in schools: a community-partnered approach.
      • Johnson C.E.
      • Ali S.A.
      • Shipp M.P.-L.
      Building community-based participatory research partnerships with a Somali refugee community.
      • Springgate B.F.
      • Allen C.
      • Jones C.
      • et al.
      Rapid community participatory assessment of health care in post-storm New Orleans.
      • Keirns C.C.
      Asthma mitigation strategies: professional, charitable, and community coalitions.
      • Laroche H.H.
      • Davis M.M.
      • Forman J.
      • et al.
      Children's roles in parents' diabetes self-management.
      • O'Brien M.J.
      • Squires A.P.
      • Bixby R.A.
      • Larson S.C.
      Role development of community health workers: an examination of selection and training processes in the intervention literature.
      • Heisler M.
      • Spencer M.
      • Forman J.
      • et al.
      Participants' assessments of the effects of a community health worker intervention on their diabetes self-management and interactions with health care providers.
      • Rosenthal M.S.
      • Ross J.S.
      • Bilodeau R.
      • Richter R.S.
      • Palley J.E.
      • Bradley E.H.
      Economic evaluation of a comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program: pilot program.
      • Dalal M.
      • Skeete R.
      • Yeo H.L.
      • Lucas G.
      • Rosenthal M.S.
      A physician team's experiences in community-based participatory research: insights into effective group collaborations.
      • Letcher A.S.
      • Perlow K.M.
      Community-based participatory research shows how a community initiative creates networks to improve well-being.
      • Patel A.I.
      • Bogart L.M.
      • Uyeda K.E.
      • et al.
      School site visits for community-based participatory research on healthy eating.
      the contribution to this imbalance from researchers can be offset by their active engagement of the intended users and beneficiaries of the research in applying principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). From proposed criteria and processes for assessing and reporting external validity, editors of 13 journals considered the tradeoffs in reporting external validity and made recommendations for action for scientific review and publishing of research summarized here. Giving greater attention to external as well as internal validity, to practice-relevance as well as causal certainty, and to community context as well as rigor in data collection, all have potential to ensure that research improves science, policy, practice, and health outcomes.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Horowitz C.R.
        • Brenner B.L.
        • Lachapelle S.
        • Amara D.A.
        • Arniella G.
        Effective recruitment of minority populations through community-led strategies.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S195-S200
        • Bazzano A.T.
        • Zeldin A.S.
        • Diab I.R.S.
        • Garro N.M.
        • Allevato N.
        • Lehrer D.
        • WRC Project Oversight Team
        The healthy lifestyle change program: a pilot of a community-based health promotion intervention for adults with developmental disabilities.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S201-S208
        • Cordasco K.M.
        • Asch S.M.
        • Bell D.S.
        • et al.
        A low-literacy medication education tool for safety-net hospital patients.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S209-S216
        • Shetgiri R.
        • Kataoka S.
        • Ryan G.W.
        • Askew L.M.
        • Chung P.J.
        • Schuster M.A.
        Risk and resilience in Latinos: a community-based participatory research study.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S217-S224
        • Kataoka S.H.
        • Nadeem E.
        • Wong M.
        • et al.
        Improving disaster mental health care in schools: a community-partnered approach.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S225-S229
        • Johnson C.E.
        • Ali S.A.
        • Shipp M.P.-L.
        Building community-based participatory research partnerships with a Somali refugee community.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S230-S236
        • Springgate B.F.
        • Allen C.
        • Jones C.
        • et al.
        Rapid community participatory assessment of health care in post-storm New Orleans.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S237-S243
        • Keirns C.C.
        Asthma mitigation strategies: professional, charitable, and community coalitions.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S244-S250
        • Laroche H.H.
        • Davis M.M.
        • Forman J.
        • et al.
        Children's roles in parents' diabetes self-management.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S251-S261
        • O'Brien M.J.
        • Squires A.P.
        • Bixby R.A.
        • Larson S.C.
        Role development of community health workers: an examination of selection and training processes in the intervention literature.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S262-S269
        • Heisler M.
        • Spencer M.
        • Forman J.
        • et al.
        Participants' assessments of the effects of a community health worker intervention on their diabetes self-management and interactions with health care providers.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S270-S279
        • Rosenthal M.S.
        • Ross J.S.
        • Bilodeau R.
        • Richter R.S.
        • Palley J.E.
        • Bradley E.H.
        Economic evaluation of a comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program: pilot program.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S280-S287
        • Dalal M.
        • Skeete R.
        • Yeo H.L.
        • Lucas G.
        • Rosenthal M.S.
        A physician team's experiences in community-based participatory research: insights into effective group collaborations.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S288-S291
        • Letcher A.S.
        • Perlow K.M.
        Community-based participatory research shows how a community initiative creates networks to improve well-being.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S292-S299
        • Patel A.I.
        • Bogart L.M.
        • Uyeda K.E.
        • et al.
        School site visits for community-based participatory research on healthy eating.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: S300-S306
        • Tunis S.R.
        • Stryer D.B.
        • Clancey C.M.
        Practical clinical trials.
        JAMA. 2003; 290: 1624-1632
        • Balas E.A.
        • Weingarten S.
        • Garb C.T.
        Improving preventive care by prompting physicians.
        Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160: 301-308
        • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
        National healthcare quality report.
        AHRQ, Rockville, MD2006
        • Rothwell P.M.
        External validity of randomised controlled trials: To whom do the results of this trial apply?.
        Lancet. 2005; 365: 82-93
        • Green L.W.
        From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations.
        Am J Health Behavior. 2001; 25: 165-178
        • Orleans C.T.
        • Barker D.C.
        • Kaufman N.J.
        • Marx J.F.
        Helping pregnant smokers quit: Meeting the challenge in the next decade.
        Tobacco Control. 2000; 9: III6-III11
        • Rothwell P.M.
        Factors that can affect the external validity of randomised controlled trials.
        PLoS Clin Trials. 2006; 1: e9
        • Beaulieu M.D.
        • Hudon E.
        • Roberge D.
        • Pineault R.
        • Forte D.
        • Legare J.
        Practice guidelines for clinical prevention: Do patients, physicians and experts share common ground?.
        CMAJ. 1999; 161: 519-523
        • Institute of Medicine, Committee on Quality Health Care in America
        Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st century.
        National Academies Press, Washington DC2003
        • Glasziou P.P.
        • Sanders S.L.
        Investigating causes of heterogeneity in systematic reviews.
        Statist Med. 2002; 21: 1503-1511
        • Westfall J.M.
        • VanVorst R.F.
        • Main D.S.
        • Herbert C.
        Community-based participatory research in practice-based research networks.
        Ann Fam Med. 2006; 4: 8-14
        • Green L.W.
        The Prevention Research Centers as models of practice-based evidence: two decades on.
        Am J Prev Med. 2007; 33: S6-S8
        • Rubenstein L.V.
        • Meredith L.S.
        • Parker L.E.
        • et al.
        Impacts of evidence-based quality improvement on depression in primary care: A randomized experiment.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2006; 21: 1027-1035
        • Glasgow R.E.
        • Magid D.J.
        • Beck A.
        • Ritzwoller D.
        • Estabrooks P.A.
        Practical clinical trials for translating research to practice: design and measurement recommendations.
        Medical Care. 2005; 43 (PMID 15908849): 551-557
        • Patrick K.
        • Scutchfield F.D.
        • Woolf S.H.
        External validity reporting in prevention research.
        Am J Prev Med. 2008; 34: 260-262
        • Campbell D.
        • Stanley J.T.
        Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research.
        Rand McNally, Chicago1966
        • Klesges L.M.
        • Dzewaltowski D.A.
        • Glasgow R.E.
        Review of external validity reporting in childhood obesity prevention research.
        Am J Prev Med. 2007; 34: 216-223
        • Green L.W.
        • Glasgow R.E.
        Evaluating the relevance, generalization, and applicability of research: issues in external validity and translation methodology.
        Evaluation and the Health Professions. 2006; 29 (PMID16510882): 126-153
        • Drummond M.F.
        • Jefferson T.O.
        Guidelines for authors and peer reviewers of economic submissions to the BMJ.
        BMJ. 1996; 313: 283
        • Bonell C.
        • Oakley A.
        • Hargreaves J.
        • Strange V.
        • Rees R.
        Assessment of generalizability in trials of health interventions: Suggested framework and systematic review.
        BMJ. 2006; 333: 346-349