Potentially effective environmental strategies have been recommended to reduce heavy
alcohol use among college students. However, studies to date on environmental prevention
strategies are few in number and have been limited by their nonexperimental designs,
inadequate sample sizes, and lack of attention to settings where the majority of heavy
drinking events occur.
To determine whether environmental prevention strategies targeting off-campus settings
would reduce the likelihood and incidence of student intoxication at those settings.
The Safer California Universities study involved 14 large public universities, half
of which were assigned randomly to the Safer intervention condition after baseline
data collection in 2003. Environmental interventions took place in 2005 and 2006 after
1 year of planning with seven Safer intervention universities. Random cross-sectional
samples of undergraduates completed online surveys in four consecutive fall semesters
Campuses and communities surrounding eight campuses of the University of California
and six in the California State University system were utilized. The study used random
samples of undergraduates (∼500–1000 per campus per year) attending the 14 public
Safer environmental interventions included nuisance party enforcement operations,
minor decoy operations, driving-under-the-influence checkpoints, social host ordinances,
and use of campus and local media to increase the visibility of environmental strategies.
Main outcome measures
Proportion of drinking occasions in which students drank to intoxication at six different
settings during the fall semester (residence hall party, campus event, fraternity
or sorority party, party at off-campus apartment or house, bar/restaurant, outdoor
setting), any intoxication at each setting during the semester, and whether students
drank to intoxication the last time they went to each setting.
Significant reductions in the incidence and likelihood of intoxication at off-campus
parties and bars/restaurants were observed for Safer intervention universities compared
to controls. A lower likelihood of intoxication was observed also for Safer intervention
universities the last time students drank at an off-campus party (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.68,
0.97); a bar or restaurant (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.62, 0.94); or any setting (OR=0.80,
95% CI=0.65, 0.97). No increase in intoxication (e.g., displacement) appeared in other
settings. Further, stronger intervention effects were achieved at Safer universities
with the highest level of implementation.
Environmental prevention strategies targeting settings where the majority of heavy
drinking events occur appear to be effective in reducing the incidence and likelihood
of intoxication among college students.