Advertisement

Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

      Abstract

      Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately.
      There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • CDC
        Alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost—U.S., 2001.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004; 53: 866-870
        • National Center for Health Statistics
        Health, U.S., 2005 with chartbook on trends in the health of America.
        NCHS, Hyattsville MD2005 (Report No.: 1232)
        • Miller J.W.
        • Naimi T.S.
        • Brewer R.D.
        • Jones S.E.
        Binge drinking and associated health risk behaviors among high school students.
        Pediatrics. 2007; 119: 76-85
        • Harwood H.
        Updating estimates of the economic costs of alcohol abuse in the U.S.: estimates, update methods, and data.
        NIAAA, Rockville MD2000 (Report No.: 98-4327)
        • USDHHS
        Healthy People 2010.
        • Mosher J.
        Alcohol issues policy briefing paper: the perils of preemption.
        American Medical Association, Chicago2001
        • Gorovitz E.
        • Mosher J.
        • Pertschuk M.
        Preemption or prevention?.
        J Public Health Policy. 1998; 19: 36-50
      1. Pub. L. No. 83-277, 67 Stat. 586 (1983).1983.

      2. Wikipedia.org. Alcohol laws of the U.S. by state. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol_laws_of_the_United_States_by_state.

        • Briss P.A.
        • Zaza S.
        • Pappaioanou M.
        • et al.
        Developing an evidence-based Guide to Community Preventive Service—methods.
        Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18: 35-43
        • Grover P.L.
        • Bozzo R.
        Preventing problems related to alcohol availability: environmental approaches.
        DHHS, SAMHSA, CSAP, 1999
        • Stockwell T.
        • Gruenewald P.
        Controls on the physical availability of alcohol.
        in: Heather N. Peters T.J. Stockwell T. International handbook of alcohol dependence and problems. Wiley, Chichester, UK2004: 699-719
        • Smith D.I.
        Effectiveness of restrictions on availability as a means of preventing alcohol-related problems.
        Contemp Drug Prob. 1988; : 627-684
        • Popova S.
        • Giesbrect N.
        • Bekmuradov D.
        • Patra J.
        Hours and days of sale and density of alcohol outlets: impacts on alcohol consumption and damage: a systematic review.
        Alcohol Alcohol. 2009; 44: 500-516
        • Babor T.F.
        • Caetano R.
        • Casswell S.
        Alcohol: no ordinary commodity-research and public policy.
        2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK2010
        • WHO
        Evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm.
        WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark2009
        • Strategic Task Force on Alcohol
        Strategic Task Force on Alcohol—second report.
        Health Promotion Unit, Department of Health and Children, Ireland2004
        • Lipsey M.W.
        • Wilson D.B.
        • Cohen M.A.
        • Derzon J.H.
        Is there a causal relationship between alcohol use and violence?.
        in: Galanter M. Recent developments in alcoholism: volume 13, alcohol and violence. Plenum Press, New York1997: 245-282
        • World Bank
        World development indicators 2006.
        • Gruenewald P.J.
        • Millar A.B.
        • Treno A.J.
        • Yang Z.
        • Ponicki W.R.
        • Roeper P.
        The geography of availability and driving after drinking.
        Addiction. 1996; 91: 967-983
        • Cook P.J.
        • Skog O.J.
        Alcool, alcoolisme, alcoolisation—comment.
        Alcohol Health Res World. 1995; 19: 30-31
        • Raymond A.
        Ten o'clock closing—the effect of the change in hotel bar closing time on road accidents in the metropolitan area of Victoria.
        Aust Road Res. 1969; 3: 3-17
        • Williams R.A.
        Changes in trading hours: ten o'clock closing and consumption of alcohol in Victoria.
        Econ Record. 1972; 48: 123-127
        • Smith D.I.
        Effect on casualty traffic accidents of the introduction of 10 p.m. Monday to Saturday hotel closing in Victoria.
        Aust Drug Alcohol Rev. 1988; 7: 163-166
        • Smith D.I.
        Effect on traffic accidents of introducing flexible hotel trading hours in Tasmania, Australia.
        Br J Addict. 1988; 83: 219-222
        • Ragnarsdottir T.
        • Kjartansdottir A.
        • Davidsdottier S.
        Effect of extended alcohol serving hours in Reykjavik, Iceland.
        in: Room R. The effects of Nordic alcohol policies. Nordic Council for Alcohol and Drug Research, Helsinki, Finland2002: 145-154
        • Newton A.
        • Sarker S.J.
        • Pahal G.S.
        • van den Bergh E.
        • Young C.
        Impact of the new UK licensing law on emergency hospital attendances: a cohort study.
        Emerg Med J. 2007; 24: 532-534
      3. Babb P. Violent crime, disorder and criminal damage since the introduction of the Licensing Act 2003. Home Office Online Report 16/07. 2007.

        • El-Maaytah M.
        • Smith S.
        • Jerjes W.
        • et al.
        The effect of the new “24 hour alcohol licensing law” on the incidence of facial trauma in London.
        Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008; 46: 460-463
        • Smith D.I.
        Effect on casualty traffic accidents of changing Sunday alcohol sales legislation in Victoria, Australia.
        J Drug Issues. 1990; 20: 417-426
        • Briscoe S.
        • Donnelly N.
        Problematic licensed premises for assault in inner Sydney, Newcastle and Wollongong.
        Aust N Z J Criminol. 2003; 36: 18-33
        • Chikritzhs T.
        • Stockwell T.
        • Masters L.
        Evaluation of the public health and safety impact of extended trading permits for Perth hotels and nightclubs.
        National Drug Institute, Perth1997
        • Chikritzhs T.
        • Stockwell T.
        The impact of later trading hours for Australian public houses (hotels) on levels of violence.
        J Stud Alcohol. 2002; 63: 591-599
        • Chikritzhs T.
        • Stockwell T.
        The impact of later trading hours for hotels on levels of impaired driver road crashes and driver breath alcohol levels.
        Addiction. 2006; 101: 1254-1264
        • Chikritzhs T.
        • Stockwell T.
        The impact of later trading hours for hotels (public houses) on breath alcohol levels of apprehended impaired drivers.
        Addiction. 2007; 102: 1609-1617
        • Smith D.I.
        Effect on traffic accidents of introducing Sunday hotel sales in New South Wales, Australia.
        Contemp Drug Prob. 1987; 14: 279-294
        • Knight I.
        • Wilson P.
        Scottish licensing laws.
        Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Social Survey Division, London1980
        • Bruce D.
        Changes in Scottish drinking habits and behaviour following the extension of permitted evening opening hours.
        Health Bull. 1980; 38: 133-137
        • De Moira A.C.P.
        • Duffy J.C.
        Changes in licensing law in England and Wales and alcohol-related mortality.
        Addiction Res. 1995; 3: 151-164
        • Duffy J.C.
        • De Moira A.C.P.
        Changes in licensing law in England and Wales and indicators of alcohol-related problems.
        Addiction Res. 1996; 4: 245-271
        • Vingilis E.
        • McLeod A.I.
        • Seeley J.
        • Mann R.E.
        • Beirness D.
        • Compton C.P.
        Road safety impact of extended drinking hours in Ontario.
        Accid Anal Prev. 2005; 37: 549-556
        • Giesbrecht N.
        Roles of commercial interests in alcohol policies: recent developments in North America.
        Addiction. 2000; 95: S581-S595
        • Duailibi S.
        • Ponicki W.
        • Grube J.
        • Pinsky I.
        • Laranjeira R.
        • Raw M.
        The effect of restricting opening hours on alcohol-related violence.
        Am J Public Health. 2007; 97: 2276-2280