Advertisement

Using the SenseCam to Improve Classifications of Sedentary Behavior in Free-Living Settings

      Background

      Studies have shown relationships between important health outcomes and sedentary behavior, independent of physical activity. There are known errors in tools employed to assess sedentary behavior. Studies of accelerometers have been limited to laboratory environments.

      Purpose

      To assess a broad range of sedentary behaviors in free-living adults using accelerometers and a Microsoft SenseCam that can provide an objective observation of sedentary behaviors through first person–view images.

      Methods

      Participants were 40 university employees who wore a SenseCam and Actigraph accelerometer for 3–5 days. Images were coded for sitting and standing posture and 12 activity types. Data were merged and aggregated to a 60-second epoch. Accelerometer counts per minute (cpm) of <100 were compared with coded behaviors. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed. Data were collected in June and July 2011 and analyzed in April 2012.

      Results

      TV viewing, other screen use, and administrative activities were correctly classified by the 100-cpm cutpoint. However, standing behaviors also fell under this threshold, and driving behaviors exceeded it. Multiple behaviors occurred simultaneously. A nearly 30-minute per day difference was found in sedentary behavior estimates based on the accelerometer versus the SenseCam.

      Conclusions

      Researchers should be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the 100-cpm accelerometer cutpoint for identifying sedentary behavior. The SenseCam may be a useful tool in free-living conditions to better understand health behaviors such as sitting.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Thorp A.A.
        • Owen N.
        • Neuhaus M.
        • Dunstan D.W.
        Sedentary behaviors and subsequent health outcomes in adults: a systematic review of longitudinal studies, 1996–2011.
        Am J Prev Med. 2011; 41: 207-215
        • Dunstan D.W.
        • Barr E.L.
        • Healy G.N.
        • et al.
        Television viewing time and mortality: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).
        Circulation. 2010; 121: 384-391
        • Krishnan S.
        • Rosenberg L.
        • Palmer J.R.
        Physical activity and television watching in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes: the Black Women's Health Study.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 169: 428-434
        • Chang P.C.
        • Li T.C.
        • Wu M.T.
        • et al.
        Association between television viewing and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a community-based population.
        BMC Public Health. 2008; 8: 193
        • Aadahl M.
        • Kjaer M.
        • Jørgensen T.
        Influence of time spent on TV viewing and vigorous intensity physical activity on cardiovascular biomarkers.
        Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007; 14: 660-665
        • Katzmarzyk P.T.
        • Church T.S.
        • Craig C.L.
        • Bouchard C.
        Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41: 998-1005
        • Gierach G.L.
        • Chang S.C.
        • Brinton L.A.
        • et al.
        Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and endometrial cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
        Int J Cancer. 2009; 124: 2139-2147
        • Shields M.
        • Tremblay M.S.
        Sedentary behaviour and obesity.
        Health Rep. 2008; 19: 19-30
        • Matthews C.E.
        • Chen K.Y.
        • Freedson P.S.
        • et al.
        Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the U.S., 2003–2004.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 167: 875-881
        • Healy G.N.
        • Wijndaele K.
        • Dunstan D.W.
        • et al.
        Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).
        Diabetes Care. 2008; 31: 369-371
        • Healy G.N.
        • Dunstan D.W.
        • Salmon J.
        • et al.
        Breaks in sedentary time: beneficial associations with metabolic risk.
        Diabetes Care. 2008; 31: 661-666
        • Cooper A.R.
        • Sebire S.
        • Montgomery A.A.
        • et al.
        Sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time and metabolic variables in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
        Diabetologia. 2012; 55: 589-599
        • Dunstan D.W.
        • Owen N.
        New exercise prescription: don't just sit there: stand up and move more, more often.
        Arch Intern Med. 2012; 172: 500-501
        • Dunstan D.W.
        • Howard B.
        • Healy G.N.
        • Owen N.
        Too much sitting—a health hazard.
        Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012; 97: 368-376
        • Manns P.J.
        • Dunstan D.W.
        • Owen N.
        • Healy G.N.
        Addressing the nonexercise part of the activity continuum: a more realistic and achievable approach to activity programming for adults with mobility disability?.
        Phys Ther. 2012; 92: 614-625
        • Marshall A.L.
        • Miller Y.D.
        • Burton N.W.
        • Brown W.J.
        Measuring total and domain-specific sitting: a study of reliability and validity.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010; 42: 1094-1102
        • Rosenberg D.E.
        • Bull F.C.
        • Marshall A.L.
        • Sallis J.F.
        • Bauman A.E.
        Assessment of sedentary behavior with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.
        J Phys Act Health. 2008; 5: S30-S44
        • Rosenberg D.E.
        • Norman G.J.
        • Wagner N.
        • et al.
        Reliability and validity of the Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire for adults.
        J Phys Act Health. 2010; 7: 697-705
        • Sallis J.F.
        • Saelens B.E.
        Assessment of physical activity by self-report: status, limitations, and future directions.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2000; 71: 1-14
        • Matthews C.
        • Chen K.
        • Freedson P.
        • et al.
        Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the U.S., 2003–2004.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 167: 875-881
        • Dijkstra B.
        • Kamsma Y.
        • Zijlstra W.
        Detection of gait and postures using a miniaturised triaxial accelerometer-based system: accuracy in community-dwelling older adults.
        Age Ageing. 2010; 39: 259-262
        • Marshall A.L.
        • Rachele J.N.
        • Marshall L.A.J.
        • Lai J.
        • Jones L.V.
        Sit versus stand: can sitting be accurately identified using MTI accelerometer data?.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010; 42: 475
        • McMahon G.C.
        • Brychta R.J.
        • Chen K.Y.
        Validation of the Actigraph (GT3X) inclinometer function.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010; 42: 489
        • Hart T.L.
        • Ainsworth B.E.
        • Tudor-Locke C.
        Objective and subjective measures of sedentary behavior and physical activity.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 449-456
        • Oliver M.
        • Schofield G.M.
        • Badland H.M.
        • Shepherd J.
        Utility of accelerometer thresholds for classifying sitting in office workers.
        Prev Med. 2010; 51: 357-360
        • Choi L.
        • Liu Z.
        • Matthews C.E.
        • Buchowski M.S.
        Validation of accelerometer wear and nonwear time classification algorithm.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 357-364
        • Oliver M.
        • Badland H.M.
        • Schofield G.M.
        • Shepherd J.
        Identification of non-wear time and sedentary behavior using accelerometry.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2011; 82: 779-783
        • Winkler E.A.
        • Gardiner P.A.
        • Healy G.N.
        • et al.
        Distinguishing true sedentary from accelerometer non-wearing time: accuracy of two automated wear-time estimations.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41: 171
        • Hart T.L.
        • McClain J.J.
        • Tudor-Locke C.
        Controlled and free-living evaluation of objective measures of sedentary and active behaviors.
        J Phys Act Health. 2011; 8: 848-857
        • Kozey-Keadle S.
        • Libertine A.
        • Lyden K.
        • Staudenmayer J.
        • Freedson P.S.
        Validation of wearable monitors for assessing sedentary behavior.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 1561-1567
        • Hodges S.
        • Williams L.
        • Berry E.
        • et al.
        SenseCam: a retrospective memory aid.
        in: Dourish P. Friday A. Ubicomp 2006, LNCS 4206. 2006: 177-193
        • Doherty A.R.
        • Hodges S.E.
        • King A.C.
        • et al.
        Wearable cameras in health: the state of the art and future possibilities.
        Am J Prev Med. 2013; 44: 320-323
        • Doherty A.R.
        • Moulin C.J.
        • Smeaton A.F.
        Automatically assisting human memory: a SenseCam browser.
        Memory. 2011; 19: 785-795
        • McKenzie T.L.
        • Sallis J.F.
        • Nader P.R.
        SOFIT: system for observing fitness instruction time.
        J Teaching Phys Ed. 1991; 11: 195-205
        • Potter M.
        • Gordon S.
        • Hamer P.
        The Nominal Group Technique: a useful consensus methodology in physiotherapy research.
        NZ J Physiother. 2004; 32: 126-130
        • Ainsworth B.E.
        • Haskell W.L.
        • Herrmann S.D.
        • et al.
        2011 Compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 1575-1581
        • Kozo J.
        • Sallis J.F.
        • Conway T.L.
        • et al.
        Sedentary behaviors of adults in relation to neighborhood walkability and income.
        Health Psychol. 2012; 31: 704-713
        • Gardiner P.A.
        • Eakin E.G.
        • Healy G.N.
        • Owen N.
        Feasibility of reducing older adults' sedentary time.
        Am J Prev Med. 2011; 41: 174-177
        • Heil D.P.
        • Brage S.
        • Rothney M.P.
        Modeling physical activity outcomes from wearable monitors.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012; 44: S50-S60
        • Staudenmayer J.
        • Zhu W.
        • Catellier D.J.
        Statistical considerations in the analysis of accelerometry-based activity monitor data.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012; 44: S61-S67
        • Patterson R.E.
        • Rock C.L.
        • Kerr J.
        • et al.
        Metabolism and breast cancer risk: frontiers in research and practice.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Nov 2; (pii: S2212-2672(12)01426-8. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2012.08.015)
        • Biddle S.J.
        • Gorely T.
        • Marshall S.J.
        Is television viewing a suitable marker of sedentary behavior in young people?.
        Ann Behav Med. 2009; 38: 147-153
        • Hamilton M.T.
        • Hamilton D.G.
        • Zderic T.W.
        Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
        Diabetes. 2007; 56: 2655-2667
        • Lynch B.M.
        Sedentary behavior and cancer: a systematic review of the literature and proposed biological mechanisms.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19: 2691-2709
        • Healy G.N.
        • Clark B.K.
        • Winkler E.A.
        • Gardiner P.A.
        • Brown W.J.
        • Matthews C.E.
        Measurement of adults' sedentary time in population-based studies.
        Am J Prev Med. 2011; 41: 216-227