Advertisement

5-Year Changes in Afterschool Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

      Background

      The afterschool period holds promise for the promotion of physical activity, yet little is known about the importance of this period as children age.

      Purpose

      To examine changes in physical activity of children aged 5–6 years and 10–12 years and their sedentary time in the afterschool period over 3 and 5 years, and to determine the contribution of this period to daily physical activity and sedentary behavior over time.

      Methods

      Data from two longitudinal studies conducted in Melbourne, Australia, were used. Accelerometer data were provided for 2053 children at baseline (Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods Study [CLAN]: 2001; Health, Eating and Play Study [HEAPS]: 2002/2003); 756 at 3-year follow-up (time point 2 [T2]); and 622 at 5-year follow-up (T3). Light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity were determined using age-adjusted cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as≤100 counts/minute. Multilevel analyses, conducted in April 2012, assessed change in physical activity and sedentary time and the contributions of the afterschool period to overall levels.

      Results

      Afterschool MPA and VPA decreased among both cohorts, particularly in the younger cohort, who performed less than half of their baseline levels at T3 (MPA: T1=24 minutes; T3=11 minutes; VPA: T1=12 minutes; T3=4 minutes). LPA also declined in the older cohort. Afterschool sedentary time increased among the younger (T1=42 minutes; T3=64 minutes) and older cohorts (T1=57 minutes; T3=84 minutes). The contribution of the afterschool period to overall MPA and VPA increased in the older cohort from 23% to 33% over 5 years. In the younger cohort, the contribution of the afterschool period to daily MPA and VPA decreased by 3% over 5 years.

      Conclusions

      The importance of the afterschool period for children’s physical activity increases with age, particularly as children enter adolescence.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Andersen L.
        • Harro M.
        • Sardinha L.
        • et al.
        Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study).
        Lancet. 2006; 368: 299-304
        • Strong W.B.
        • Malina R.A.
        • Blimkie C.J.
        • et al.
        Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth.
        J Pediatr. 2005; 146: 732-737
        • Tremblay M.S.
        • LeBlanc A.G.
        • Kho M.E.
        • et al.
        Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011; 8: 98
        • Salmon J.
        • Tremblay M.S.
        • Marshall S.J.
        • Hume C.
        Health risks, correlates, and interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in young people.
        Am J Prev Med. 2011; 41: 197-206
        • Chinapaw M.J.M.
        • Proper K.I.
        • Brug J.
        • van Mechelen W.
        • Singh A.S.
        Relationship between young people’s sedentary behaviour and biomedical health indicators: a systematic review of prospective studies.
        Obes Rev. 2011; 12: e621-e632
        • McMahon S.K.
        • Haynes A.
        • Ratnam N.
        • et al.
        Increase in type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in Western Australia.
        Med J Aus. 2004; 180: 459-461
        • Fairclough S.J.
        • Butcher Z.H.
        • Stratton G.
        Whole-day and segmented-day physical activity variability of northwest England school children.
        Prev Med. 2007; 44: 421-425
        • Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
        2007 Australian national children's nutrition and physical activity survey: main findings. Canberra, Australia.
        Commonwealth of Australia, 2008
        • Riddoch C.
        • Mattocks C.
        • Deere K.
        • et al.
        Objective measurement of levels and patterns of physical activity.
        Arch Dis Child. 2007; 92: 963-969
        • Australian Bureau of Statistics
        Children's participation in cultural and leisure activities.
        Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia2004
        • Hesketh K.
        • Graham M.
        • Waters E.
        Children's afterschool activity: associations with weight status and family circumstance.
        Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2008; 20: 84-94
        • Cooper A.
        • Page A.S.
        • Wheeler B.W.
        • Hillsdon M.
        • Griew P.
        • Jago R.
        Patterns of GPS measured time outdoors after school and objective physical activity in English children: the PEACH project.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010; 7: 31
        • Beighle A.
        • Morgan C.F.
        • Le Masurier G.
        • Pangrazi R.P.
        Children's physical activity during recess and outside of school.
        J Sch Health. 2006; 76: 516-520
        • Hager R.L.
        Television viewing and physical activity in children.
        J Adolesc Health. 2006; 39: 656-661
        • Cox M.
        • Schofield G.
        • Greasley N.
        • Kilt G.S.
        Pedometer steps in primary school-aged children: a comparison of school-based and out-of-school activity.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2006; 9: 91-97
        • Flohr J.A.
        • Todd M.K.
        • Tudor-Locke C.
        Pedometer-assessed physical activity in young adolescents.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2006; 77: 309-315
        • Myers L.
        • Strikmiller P.K.
        • Webber L.S.
        • Berenson G.S.
        Physical and sedentary activity in school children grades 5-8: the Bogalusa Heart Study.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996; 28: 852-859
        • Nilsson A.
        • Anderssen S.A.
        • Andersen L.B.
        • et al.
        Between- and within-day variability in physical activity and inactivity in 9- and 15-year-old European children.
        Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009; 19: 10-18
        • Jago R.
        • Fox K.R.
        • Page A.S.
        • Brockman R.
        • Thompson J.L.
        Physical activity and sedentary behaviour typologies of 10-11 year olds.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010; 7: 59
        • Wickel E.
        • Issartel J.
        • Belton S.
        Longitudinal change in active and sedentary behavior during the afterschool hours.
        J Phys Act Health. 2012; 10: 416-422
        • Cleland V.
        • Timperio A.
        • Salmon J.
        • Hume C.
        • Baur L.A.
        • Crawford D.
        Predictors of time spent outdoors among children: 5-year longitudinal findings.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 2010; 64: 400-406
        • Pearson N.
        • Timperio A.
        • Salmon J.
        • Crawford D.
        • Biddle S.J.
        Family influences on children's physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption.
        Int J Behav Nutr Act. 2009; 6: 34
        • Mo F.
        • Turner M.
        • Krewski D.
        • Mo F.D.
        Physical inactivity and socioeconomic status in Canadian adolescents.
        Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2005; 17: 49-56
        • Trost S.G.
        • Ward D.S.
        • Moorehead S.M.
        • Watson P.D.
        • Riner W.
        • Burke J.R.
        Validity of the computer science and applications (CSA) activity monitor in children.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998; 30: 629-633
        • Janz K.F.
        Validation of the CSA accelerometer for assessing children's physical activity.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994; 26: 369-375
        • Cain K.L.
        • Sallis J.F.
        • Conway T.L.
        • Van Dyck D.
        • Calhoon L.
        Using accelerometers in youth physical activity studies: a review of methods.
        J Phys Act Health. 2012; 10: 437-450
        • Catellier D.J.
        • Hannan P.J.
        • Murray D.M.
        • et al.
        Imputation of missing data when measuring physical activity by accelerometry.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005; 37: S555-S562
        • Ridgers N.D.
        • Timperio A.
        • Crawford D.
        • Salmon J.
        Five-year changes in school recess and lunchtime and the contribution to children's daily physical activity.
        Br J Sports Med. 2012; 46: 741-746
        • Trost S.G.
        • Pate R.R.
        • Sallis J.F.
        • et al.
        Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002; 34: 350-355
        • Trost S.G.
        • Loprinzi P.D.
        • Moore R.
        • Pfeiffer K.A.
        Comparison of accelerometer cut points for predicting activity intensity in youth.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 1360-1368
        • Ridgers N.D.
        • Salmon J.
        • Ridley K.
        • O’Connell E.
        • Arundell L.
        • Timperio A.
        Agreement between activPAL and ActiGraph for assessing children's sedentary time.
        Int J Behav Nutr Act. 2012; 9: 15
        • Quene H.
        • van den Bergh H.
        On multi-level modeling of data from repeated measures designs: a tutorial.
        Speech Commun. 2004; 43: 103-121
      1. Twisk J. Applied multilevel analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge2006
        • Nilsson A.
        • Andersen L.B.
        • Ommundsen Y.
        • et al.
        Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study).
        BMC Public Health. 2009; 9: 322
        • Bélanger M.
        • Gray-Donald K.
        • O'Loughlin J.
        • Paradis G.
        • Hanley J.
        When adolescents drop the ball: sustainability of physical activity in youth.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: 41-49
        • Nelson M.C.
        • Neumark-Stzainer D.
        • Hanna P.J.
        • Sirard J.R.
        • Story M.
        Longitudinal and secular trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior during adolescence.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 118: e1627-e1634
        • Wheeler B.W.
        • Cooper A.R.
        • Page A.S.
        • Jago R.
        Greenspace and children's physical activity: a GPS/GIS analysis of the PEACH project.
        Prev Med. 2010; 51: 148-152
        • Atkin A.J.
        • Gorely T.
        • Biddle S.J.
        • Marshall S.J.
        • Cameron N.
        Critical hours: physical activity and sedentary behavior of adolescents after school.
        Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2008; 20: 446-456
        • Prochaska J.J.
        • Sallis J.F.
        • Griffith B.
        • Douglas J.
        Physical activity levels of Barbadian youth and comparison to a U.S. sample.
        Int J Behav Med. 2002; 9: 360-372
        • Hohepa M.
        • Scragg R.
        • Schofield G.
        • Kolt G.S.
        • Schaaf D.
        Self-reported physical activity levels during a segmented school day in a large multiethnic sample of high school students.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2009; 12: 284-292
        • Hardy L.L.
        • Bass S.L.
        • Booth M.L.
        Changes in sedentary behavior among adolescent girls: a 2.5 year prospective cohort study.
        J Adolesc Health. 2007; 40: 158-165
        • Beets M.W.
        • Beighle A.
        • Erwin H.E.
        • Huberty J.L.
        After-school program impact on physical activity and fitness: a meta-analysis.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 36: 527-537
        • Bassett D.R.
        • Fitzhugh E.C.
        • Heath G.W.
        • et al.
        Estimating energy expenditures for school-based policies and active living.
        Am J Prev Med. 2013; 44: 108-113
        • Pate R.R.
        • O'Neill J.R.
        After-school interventions to increase physical activity among youth.
        Br J Sports Med. 2009; 43: 14-18
        • Eyler A.
        • Nanney M.S.
        • Brownson R.C.
        • Lohman D.
        • Haire-Joshu D.
        Correlates of afterschool activity preference in children ages 5-12: the PARADE Study.
        Am J Health Educ. 2006; 37: 69-77
        • Salmon J.
        • Arundell L.
        • Hume C.
        • et al.
        A cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce sedentary behavior and promote physical activity and health of 8-9 year olds: the Transform-Us! Study.
        BMC Public Health. 2011; 11: 759
        • Duncan S.
        • McPhee J.C.
        • Schluter P.J.
        • Zinn C.
        • Smith R.
        • Schofield G.
        Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011; 8: 127
        • Edwardson C.L.
        • Gorely T.
        Epoch length and its effect on physical activity intensity.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010; 42: 928-934