Main outcome measures
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
- Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.Annu Rev Public Health. 2007; 28: 195-211
Cook PJ, Laub JH. After the epidemic: recent trends in youth violence in the U.S. Cambridge MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2001. NBER Working Paper No. 8571.
- Youth violence in the U.S.: major trends, risk factors, and prevention approaches.Am J Prev Med. 1998; 14: 259-272
- Bullying behaviors among U.S. youth.JAMA. 2001; 285: 2094-2100
- Age at onset of substance abuse: a crucial covariate of psychopathic traits and aggression in adult offenders.Psychiatry Res. 2007; 153: 195-198
- Substance use among adults 35 years of age: prevalence, adulthood predictors, and impact of adolescent substance use.Am J Public Health. 2004; 94: 96-102
- The relationship between early age of onset of initial substance use and engaging in multiple health risk behaviors among young adolescents.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999; 153: 286-291
- The prevention of youth violence: the rationale for and characteristics of four evaluation projects.Am J Prev Med. 2001; 20: 15-21
- Which comes first in adolescence—sex and drugs or depression?.Am J Prev Med. 2005; 29: 163-170
- Youth risk behavior surveillance—U.S., 2005.J Sch Health. 2006; 76: 353-372
- Violence in schools, cross-national and cross-cultural perspectives.J Psychol Trauma. 2008; 6: 87-89
- Positive youth development requires comprehensive health promotion programs.Am J Health Behav. 2002; 26: 407-424
- Effects of 2 prevention programs on high-risk behaviors among African American youth: a randomized trial.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004; 158: 377-384
- School-based interventions for aggressive and disruptive behavior: update of a meta-analysis.Am J Prev Med. 2007; 33: S130-S143
- Effectiveness of school-based drug prevention programs: a meta-analysis of the research.J Primary Prev. 1997; 18: 71-128
- School-based prevention of problem behaviors: a meta-analysis.J Quant Criminol. 2001; 17: 247-272
- School-based mental health and behavioral programs for low-income, urban youth: a systematic and meta-analytic review.Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2011; 18: 372-390
- The impact of enhancing students social and emotional learning: a meta analysis of school based universal interventions.Child Dev. 2011; 82: 405-432
- What works in character education: a research-driven guide for educators.Character Education Partnership, Washington DC2005 (1–43)
- Research-based character education.Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci. 2004; 591: 72-85
- The Positive Action program: improving academics, behavior, and character by teaching comprehensive skills for successful learning and living.in: Lovat T. Toomey R. Clement N. International Research Handbook on Values Education and Student Wellbeing. Springer, Dordrecht2010: 471-501
- Inviting school success: a self-concept approach to teaching, learning, and democratic practice.Wadsworth, Florence KY1996
- Self concept and school achievement.Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood-Cliffs NJ1970
- Self-esteem Enhancement Theory: An emerging framework for promoting health across the life-span.in: DiClement R.J. Kegler M.C. Crosby R.A. Theories in health promotion practice and research. 2nd ed. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco CA2009: 93-130
- The theory of triadic influence.in: DiClemente R.J. Kegler M.C. Crosby R.A. Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research. 2nd ed. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco CA2009: 451-510
- The theory of triadic influence: a new theory of health behavior with implications for preventive interventions.Adv Med Soc. 1994; 4: 19-44
- Use of a social and character development program to prevent substance use, violent behaviors, and sexual activity among elementary-school students in Hawaii.Am J Public Health. 2009; 99: 1438-1445
- Impact of a social-emotional and character development program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial.J Res Educ Effect. 2010; 3: 26-55
- Effects of the Positive Action programme on problem behaviors in elementary school students: a matched-pair, randomized control trial in Chicago.Psychol Health. 2011; 26: 187-204
- Problem behavior and development transition in adolescence.J Sch Health. 1982; 52: 295-300
- Person mobility in the design and analysis of cluster-randomized cohort prevention trials.Prev Sci. 2012; 13: 300-313
- Congratulations, you have been randomized into the control group!: issues to consider when recruiting schools for matched pair randomized control trials of prevention programs.J Sch Health. 2008; 78: 131-139
Flay BR. Randomized trial of the Positive Action program in Chicago schools and extension to Grade 8. clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01025674.
Chicago Police Department. Chicago Police Department clear map crime incidents. gis.chicagopolice.org/CLEARMap/startPage.htm.
- Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997; 72: 408-419
- The aggression scale: a self-report measure of aggressive behavior for young adolescents.J Early Adolesc. 2001; 21: 50-67
- Early predictors of male delinquency: a review.Psychol Bull. 1983; 94: 68-99
CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. RR-12. 2004. www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/index.htm.
Kamphaus R, Reynolds CR, Hatcher NM. Treatment planning and evaluation with the BASC: the Behavior Assessment System for Children. 1999:563–97.
- Likelihood based frequentist inference when data are missing at random.Stat Sci. 1998; 13: 236-247
- Practical meta-analysis.Sage, Thousand Oaks CA2001
- Effect-size indices for dichotomized outcomes in meta-analysis.Psychol Methods. 2003; 8: 448-467
- Hierarchical linear models: applications and data analysis methods. Vol 1. Sage, Thousand Oaks CA2002
- Working with missing values.J Marriage Fam. 2005; 67: 1012-1028
- A brief conceptual tutorial of multilevel analysis in social epidemiology: using measures of clustering in multilevel logistic regression to investigate contextual phenomena.J Epidemiol Commun Health. 2006; 60: 290-297
- Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment.Child Dev. 1995; 66: 710-722
Lewis KM, Acock A, Bavarian N, et al. Effects of the Positive Action program on social-emotional outcomes in Chicago Public Schools. In: Society for Research in Adolescence. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2012, March.
- Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.J Appl Psychol. 2003; 88: 879-903
- Contemporary options for longitudinal follow-up: lessons learned from a cohort of urban adolescents.Eval Prog Plann. 2010; 34: 87-96
- Models for testing and evaluating impact in randomized field trials: intent-to-treat analyses for integrating the perspectives of person, place, and time.Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008; 95: S74-S104
Kendra M. Lewis and Niloofar Bavarian were employed at Oregon State University, and Joseph Day was employed at the University of Illinois at Chicago, when this research was completed.