Advertisement

Fast-Food Restaurants, Park Access, and Insulin Resistance Among Hispanic Youth

  • Stephanie Hsieh
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Stephanie Hsieh, PhD, Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 N. Broadway, Rm. 263, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Affiliations
    Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
    Search for articles by this author
  • Ann C. Klassen
    Affiliations
    Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

    Department of Community Health and Prevention, Drexel University School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Search for articles by this author
  • Frank C. Curriero
    Affiliations
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

    Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
    Search for articles by this author
  • Laura E. Caulfield
    Affiliations
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
    Search for articles by this author
  • Lawrence J. Cheskin
    Affiliations
    Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jaimie N. Davis
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, Texas
    Search for articles by this author
  • Michael I. Goran
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

    Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

    Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
    Search for articles by this author
  • Marc J. Weigensberg
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
    Search for articles by this author
  • Donna Spruijt-Metz
    Affiliations
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
    Search for articles by this author

      Background

      Evidence of associations between the built environment and obesity risk has been steadily building, yet few studies have focused on the relationship between the built environment and aspects of metabolism related to obesity’s most tightly linked comorbidity, type 2 diabetes.

      Purpose

      To examine the relationship between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and insulin resistance using accurate laboratory measures to account for fat distribution and adiposity.

      Methods

      Data on 453 Hispanic youth (aged 8–18 years) from 2001 to 2011 were paired with neighborhood built environment and 2000 Census data. Analyses were conducted in 2011. Walking-distance buffers were built around participants’ residential locations. Body composition and fat distribution were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry and waist circumference. Variables for park space, food access, walkability, and neighborhood sociocultural aspects were entered into a multivariate regression model predicting insulin resistance as determined by the homeostasis model assessment.

      Results

      Independent of obesity measures, greater fast-food restaurant density was associated with higher insulin resistance. Increased park space and neighborhood linguistic isolation were associated with lower insulin resistance among boys. Among girls, park space was associated with lower insulin resistance, but greater neighborhood linguistic isolation was associated with higher insulin resistance. A significant interaction between waist circumference and neighborhood linguistic isolation indicated that the negative association between neighborhood linguistic isolation and insulin resistance diminished with increased waist circumference.

      Conclusions

      Reducing access to fast food and increasing public park space may be valuable to addressing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but effects may vary by gender.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ford P.B.
        • Dzewaltowski D.A.
        Disparities in obesity prevalence due to variation in the retail food environment: three testable hypotheses.
        Nutr Rev. 2008; 66: 216-228
        • Glanz K.
        Why Americans eat what they do: taste, nutrition, cost, convenience, and weight control concerns as influences on food consumption.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 98: 1118-1126
        • Galvez M.P.
        • Hong L.
        • Choi E.
        • Liao L.
        • Godbold J.
        • Brenner B.
        Childhood obesity and neighborhood food store availability in an inner city community.
        Acad Pediatr. 2009; 9: 339-343
        • Black J.L.
        • Macinko J.
        Neighborhoods and obesity.
        Nutr Rev. 2008; 66: 2-20
        • Morland K.
        • Diez Roux A.V.
        • Wing S.
        Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.
        Am J Prev Med. 2006; 30: 333-339
        • Pearce J.
        • Hiscock R.
        • Blakely T.
        • Witten K.
        The contextual effects of neighbourhood access to supermarkets and convenience stores on individual fruit and vegetable consumption.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008; 62: 198-201
        • Fleischhacker S.E.
        • Evenson K.R.
        • Rodriguez D.A.
        • Ammerman A.S.
        A systematic review of fast food access studies.
        Obes Rev. 2011; 12: e460-e471
        • Gregson J.
        Poverty, sprawl, and restaurant types influence body mass index of residents in California counties.
        Public Health Rep. 2011; 126: 141-149
        • Boone-Heinonen J.
        • Gordon-Larsen P.
        • Kiefe C.I.
        • Shikany J.M.
        • Lewis C.E.
        • Popkin B.M.
        Fast food restaurants and food stores: longitudinal associations with diet in young to middle-aged adults: the CARDIA study.
        Arch Intern Med. 2011; 171: 1162-1170
        • Macdonald L.
        • Cummins S.
        • Macintyre S.
        Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation—substitution or concentration?.
        Appetite. 2007; 49: 251-254
        • Sturm R.
        • Cohen D.A.
        Zoning for health? The year-old ban on new fast-food restaurants in South LA.
        Health Aff. 2009; 28: w1088-w1097
        • Hodge J.G.
        • Garcia A.M.
        • Shah S.
        Legal themes concerning obesity regulation in the U.S.: theory and practice.
        Aust N Z Health Policy. 2008; 5: 14
        • Brownson R.C.
        • Hoehner C.M.
        • Day K.
        • Forsyth A.
        • Sallis J.F.
        Measuring the built environment for physical activity: state of the science.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 36 (e12): S99-S123
        • Saelens B.E.
        • Sallis J.F.
        • Frank L.D.
        Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures.
        Ann Behav Med. 2003; 25: 80-91
        • Ding D.
        • Sallis J.F.
        • Kerr J.
        • Lee S.
        • Rosenberg D.E.
        Neighborhood environment and physical activity among youth: a review.
        Am J Prev Med. 2011; 41: 442-455
        • Roemmich J.N.
        • Epstein L.H.
        • Raja S.
        • Yin L.
        • Robinson J.
        • Winiewicz D.
        Association of access to parks and recreational facilities with the physical activity of young children.
        Prev Med. 2006; 43: 437-441
        • Curriero F.C.
        • James N.T.
        • Shields T.M.
        • et al.
        Exploring walking path quality as a factor for urban elementary school children’s active transport to school.
        J Phys Act Health. 2013; : 323-334
        • Rundle A.
        • Neckerman K.M.
        • Freeman L.
        • et al.
        Neighborhood food environment and walkability predict obesity in New York City.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2009; 117: 442-447
        • Brown B.B.
        • Yamada I.
        • Smith K.R.
        • Zick C.D.
        • Kowaleski-Jones L.
        • Fan J.X.
        Mixed land use and walkability: variations in land use measures and relationships with BMI, overweight, and obesity.
        Health Place. 2009; 15: 1130-1141
        • Wolch J.
        • Jerrett M.
        • Reynolds K.
        • et al.
        Childhood obesity and proximity to urban parks and recreational resources: a longitudinal cohort study.
        Health Place. 2011; 17: 207-214
        • Frank L.D.
        • Saelens B.E.
        • Chapman J.
        • et al.
        Objective assessment of obesogenic environments in youth: geographic information system methods and spatial findings from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids study.
        Am J Prev Med. 2012; 42: e47-e55
        • Pasala S.K.
        • Rao A.A.
        • Sridhar G.R.
        Built environment and diabetes.
        Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2010; 30: 63-68
        • Maziak W.
        • Ward K.D.
        • Stockton M.B.
        Childhood obesity: are we missing the big picture?.
        Obes Rev. 2008; 9: 35-42
        • Auchincloss A.H.
        • Diez Roux A.V.
        • Brown D.G.
        • O’Meara E.S.
        • Raghunathan T.E.
        Association of insulin resistance with distance to wealthy areas.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2007; 165: 389-397
        • Salois M.J.
        Obesity and diabetes, the built environment, and the “local” food economy in the U.S., 2007.
        Econ Hum Biol. 2012; 10: 35-42
        • Dengel D.R.
        • Hearst M.O.
        • Harmon J.H.
        • Forsyth A.
        • Lytle L.A.
        Does the built environment relate to the metabolic syndrome in adolescents?.
        Health Place. 2009; 15: 946-951
        • Reaven G.M.
        Relationships among insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, essential hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: similarities and differences.
        J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011; 13: 238-243
        • Matthews D.R.
        • Hosker J.P.
        • Rudenski A.S.
        • Naylor B.A.
        • Treacher D.F.
        • Turner R.C.
        Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.
        Diabetologia. 1985; 28: 412-419
        • Esteghamati A.
        • Ashraf H.
        • Khalilzadeh O.
        • et al.
        Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007).
        Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010; 7: 26
        • Lee J.M.
        • Okumura M.J.
        • Davis M.M.
        • Herman W.H.
        • Gurney J.G.
        Prevalence and determinants of insulin resistance among U.S. adolescents: a population-based study.
        Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: 2427-2432
        • Cowie C.C.
        • Rust K.F.
        • Byrd-Holt D.D.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of diabetes and high risk for diabetes using A1C criteria in the U.S. population in 1988–2006.
        Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 562-568
        • Viner R.M.
        • Segal T.Y.
        • Lichtarowicz-Krynska E.
        • Hindmarsh P.
        Prevalence of the insulin resistance syndrome in obesity.
        Arch Dis Child. 2005; 90: 10-14
        • Caballero E.A.
        Diabetes in the Hispanic or Latino population: genes, environment, culture, and more.
        Curr Diabetes Rep. 2005; 5: 217-225
        • Carulli L.
        • Rondinella S.
        • Lombardini S.
        • Canedi I.
        • Loria P.
        • Carulli N.
        Review article: diabetes, genetics and ethnicity.
        Aliment Pharm Ther. 2005; 22: 16-19
        • Metzger R.
        • Delgado J.L.
        • Herrell R.
        Environmental health and Hispanic children.
        Environ Health Perspect. 1995; 103: 25-32
        • Everson S.A.
        • Maty S.C.
        • Lynch J.W.
        • Kaplan G.A.
        Epidemiologic evidence for the relation between socioeconomic status and depression, obesity, and diabetes.
        J Psychosom Res. 2002; 53: 891-895
        • Gordon-Larsen P.
        • Adair L.S.
        • Popkin B.M.
        The relationship of ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and overweight in U.S. adolescents.
        Obes Res. 2003; 11: 121-129
        • Dallongeville J.
        • Cottel D.
        • Ferrières J.
        • et al.
        Household income is associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in a sex-specific manner.
        Dia Care. 2005; 28: 409-415
        • Liu J.
        • Probst J.C.
        • Harun N.
        • Bennett K.J.
        • Torres M.E.
        Acculturation, physical activity, and obesity among Hispanic adolescents.
        Ethn Health. 2009; 14: 509-525
        • Gordon-Larsen P.
        • Harris K.M.
        • Ward D.S.
        • Popkin B.M.
        National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Acculturation and overweight-related behaviors among Hispanic immigrants to the U.S.: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.
        Soc Sci Med. 2003; 57: 2023-2034
        • Osypuk T.L.
        • Roux A.V.D.
        • Hadley C.
        • Kandula N.
        Are immigrant enclaves healthy places to live? The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
        Soc Sci Med. 2009; 69: 110-120
        • Ham S.A.
        • Yore M.M.
        • Kruger J.
        • Heath G.W.
        • Moeti R.
        Physical activity patterns among Latinos in the U.S.: putting the pieces together.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2007; 4: A92
        • Pérez-Escamilla R.
        • Putnik P.
        The role of acculturation in nutrition, lifestyle, and incidence of type 2 diabetes among Latinos.
        J Nutr. 2007; 137: 860-870
        • Marquez D.X.
        • McAuley E.
        Gender and acculturation influences on physical activity in Latino adults.
        Ann Behav Med. 2006; 31: 138-144
        • Crespo C.J.
        • Smit E.
        • Carter-Pokras O.
        • Andersen R.
        Acculturation and leisure-time physical inactivity in Mexican American adults: results from NHANES III, 1988–1994.
        Am J Public Health. 2001; 91: 1254-1257
        • Cruz M.L.
        • Weigensberg M.J.
        • Huang TT-K
        • Ball G.
        • Shaibi G.Q.
        • Goran M.I.
        The metabolic syndrome in overweight Hispanic youth and the role of insulin sensitivity.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89: 108-113
        • Spruijt-Metz D.
        • Emken B.A.
        • Spruijt M.R.
        • et al.
        CRP is related to higher leptin levels in minority peripubertal females regardless of adiposity levels.
        Obesity. 2012; 20: 512-516
        • Davis J.N.
        • Gyllenhammer L.E.
        • Vanni A.A.
        • et al.
        Startup circuit training program reduces metabolic risk in Latino adolescents.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 2195-2203
        • Toledo-Corral C.M.
        • Vargas L.G.
        • Goran M.I.
        • Weigensberg M.J.
        Hemoglobin A1C above threshold level is associated with decreased β-cell function in overweight Latino youth.
        J Pediatr. 2012; 160: 751-756
        • Weigensberg M.J.
        • Lane C.J.
        • Winners O.
        • et al.
        Acute effects of stress-reduction Interactive Guided Imagery(SM) on salivary cortisol in overweight Latino adolescents.
        J Altern Complement Med. 2009; 15: 297-303
        • Davis J.N.
        • Kelly L.A.
        • Lane C.J.
        • et al.
        Randomized control trial to improve adiposity and insulin resistance in overweight Latino adolescents.
        Obesity. 2009; 17: 1542-1548
        • Mitra R.
        • Buliung R.N.
        Built environment correlates of active school transportation: neighborhood and the modifiable areal unit problem.
        J Transp Geogr. 2012; 20: 51-61
        • Feng J.
        • Glass T.A.
        • Curriero F.C.
        • Stewart W.F.
        • Schwartz B.S.
        The built environment and obesity: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence.
        Health Place. 2010; 16: 175-190
        • Oliver L.N.
        • Schuurman N.
        • Hall A.W.
        Comparing circular and network buffers to examine the influence of land use on walking for leisure and errands.
        Int J Health Geogr. 2007; 6: 41
        • Zeiler M.
        Modeling our world: the ESRI guide to geodatabase concepts.
        2nd ed, new ed. ESRI Press, Redlands CA2010
        • Shin H.
        • Kominshki R.
        Language use in the U.S.: 2007.
        U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington DC2010
        • Sturm R.
        • Cohen D.
        South Los Angeles ban on fast-food chains misses the mark.
        RAND Corporation, Santa Monica CA2009
        • Janssen I.
        • Heymsfield S.B.
        • Allison D.B.
        • Kotler D.P.
        • Ross R.
        Body mass index and waist circumference independently contribute to the prediction of nonabdominal, abdominal subcutaneous, and visceral fat.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75: 683-688
        • Wang Y.
        • Rimm E.B.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Hu F.B.
        Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in predicting risk of type 2 diabetes among men.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81: 555-563
        • Dwyer J.J.
        • Allison K.R.
        • Goldenberg E.R.
        • Fein A.J.
        • Yoshida K.K.
        • Boutilier M.A.
        Adolescent girls’ perceived barriers to participation in physical activity.
        Adolescence. 2005; 41: 75-89
        • Taylor W.C.
        • Yancey A.K.
        • Leslie J.
        • et al.
        Physical activity among African American and Latino middle school girls: consistent beliefs, expectations, and experiences across two sites.
        Women Health. 2000; 30: 67-82
        • Zabinski M.F.
        • Saelens B.E.
        • Stein R.I.
        • Hayden-Wade H.A.
        • Wilfley D.E.
        Overweight children’s barriers to and support for physical activity.
        Obes Res. 2003; 11: 238-246
        • Brown B.
        • Mackett R.
        • Gong Y.
        • Kitazawa K.
        • Paskins J.
        Gender differences in children’s pathways to independent mobility.
        Child Geogr. 2008; 6: 385-401
        • Qu H.Q.
        • Li Q.
        • Rentfro A.R.
        • Fisher-Hoch S.P.
        • McCormick J.B.
        The definition of insulin resistance using HOMA-IR for Americans of Mexican descent using machine learning.
        PLoS One. 2011; 6: e21041
        • Wall M.M.
        • Larson N.I.
        • Forsyth A.
        • et al.
        Patterns of obesogenic neighborhood features and adolescent weight: a comparison of statistical approaches.
        Am J Prev Med. 2012; 42: e65-e75
        • Chiang P.H.
        • Wahlqvist M.L.
        • Lee M.S.
        • Huang L.Y.
        • Chen H.H.
        • Huang STY
        Fast-food outlets and walkability in school neighbourhoods predict fatness in boys and height in girls: a Taiwanese population study.
        Public Health Nutr. 2011; 14: 1601-1609