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Promotion of Tobacco Use Cessation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People

A Systematic Review

      Context

      Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are at increased risk for the adverse effects of tobacco use, given their high prevalence of use, especially smoking. Evidence regarding cessation is limited. To determine if efficacious interventions are available and to aid the development of interventions, a systematic review was conducted of grey and peer-reviewed literature describing clinical, community, and policy interventions, as well as knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding tobacco use cessation among LGBT people.

      Evidence acquisition

      Eight databases for articles from 1987 to April 23, 2014, were searched. In February−November 2013, authors and researchers were contacted to identify grey literature.

      Evidence synthesis

      The search identified 57 records, of which 51 were included and 22 were from the grey literature; these were abstracted into evidence tables, and a narrative synthesis was conducted in October 2013−May 2014. Group cessation curricula tailored for LGBT populations were found feasible to implement and show evidence of effectiveness. Community interventions have been implemented by and for LGBT communities, although these interventions showed feasibility, no rigorous outcome evaluations exist. Clinical interventions show little difference between LGBT and heterosexual people. Focus groups suggest that care is needed in selecting the messaging used in media campaigns.

      Conclusions

      LGBT-serving organizations should implement existing evidence-based tobacco-dependence treatment and clinical systems to support treatment of tobacco use. A clear commitment from government and funders is needed to investigate whether sexual orientation and gender identity moderate the impacts of policy interventions, media campaigns, and clinical interventions.
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