Advertisement

Programs to Strengthen Parent–Adolescent Communication About Reproductive Health

A Systematic Review

      Context

      When caring for an adolescent client, providers of contraceptive services must consider whether and how to encourage parent/guardian–child communication about the adolescent’s reproductive health. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of programs designed to increase parent–child communication about reproductive health. The review was used to inform national recommendations on quality family planning services. Data analysis occurred from mid-2011 through 2012.

      Evidence acquisition

      Several electronic bibliographic databases were used to identify relevant articles, including PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Popline, published from January 1985 through February 2011.

      Evidence synthesis

      Sixteen articles met the inclusion criteria: all studies examined the impact on at least one medium- or short-term outcome, and two studies assessed the impact on teen pregnancy. One study examined the impact of a program conducted in a clinic setting; the remainder examined the impact of programs in community settings. All studies showed a positive impact on at least one short-term outcome, and 12 of 16 studies showed an increase in parent–child communication about reproductive health. Four of seven studies found an impact on sexual risk behavior.

      Conclusions

      Most programs increased parent–child communication, and several resulted in reduced sexual risk behavior of adolescents. This suggests that delivering a clinic-based program that effectively helps parents/guardians talk to their adolescent child(ren) about reproductive health, or referring parents/guardians to an evidence-based program in the community, may be beneficial. However, further rigorous research on delivery of these programs in clinical settings is needed.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ventura S.
        • Curtin S.
        • Abma J.
        • Henshaw S.
        Estimated pregnancy rates and rates of pregnancy outcomes for the United States, 1990-2008.
        Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2012; 60
        • Hoffman S.
        • Maynard R.
        Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. 2nd ed. Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC2008
        • Hoffman S.
        Counting It Up: The Public Costs of Teen Childbearing. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, Washington, DC2010
        • Markham C.M.
        • Lormand D.
        • Gloppen K.M.
        • et al.
        Connectedness as a predictor of sexual and reproductive health outcomes for youth.
        J Adolesc Health. 2010; 46: S23-S41https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.11.214
        • Miller B.C.
        Family influences on adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior.
        J Sex Res. 2002; 39: 22-26https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490209552115
        • Rupp R.
        • Rosenthal S.L.
        Parental influences on adolescent sexual behaviors.
        Adoles Med State Art Rev. 2007; 18 (vi): 460-470
        • Reddy D.
        • Fleming R.
        • Swain C.
        Effect of mandatory parental notification on adolescent girls’ use of sexual health care services.
        JAMA. 2002; 288: 710-714https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.6.710
        • Miller K.
        • Wyckoff S.
        • Lin C.
        • Whitaker D.
        • Sukalack T.
        • Fowler M.
        Pediatricians’ role and practices regarding provision of guidance about sexual risk reduction to parents.
        J Prim Prev. 2008; 29: 279-291https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-008-0137-9
        • CDC, Office of Population Affairs
        Providing quality family planning services: recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs.
        MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014; 63: 1-29
        • Tregear S.J.
        • Gavin L.E.
        • Williams J.R.
        Systematic review evidence methodology: providing quality family planning services.
        Am J Prev Med. 2015; 49: S23-S30
        • Kirby D.
        Comprehensive sex education: strong public support and persuasive evidence of impact, but little funding.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006; 160: 1182-1184https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.160.11.1182
        • Kirby D.B.
        • Laris B.A.
        • Rolleri L.A.
        Sex and HIV education programs: their impact on sexual behaviors of young people throughout the world.
        J Adolesc Health. 2007; 40: 206-217https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.11.143
        • Oringanje C.
        • Meremikwu M.M.
        • Eko H.
        • Esu E.
        • Meremikwu A.
        • Ehiri J.E.
        Interventions for preventing unintended pregnancies among adolescents.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; : CD005215https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005215.pub2
        • UN General Assembly
        International Youth Year: Participation, Development, Peace: Report of the Secretary-General. United Nations, New York1981
        • Casey B.J.
        • Getz S.
        • Galvan A.
        The adolescent brain.
        Dev Rev. 2008; 28: 62-77https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.08.003
        • Spear L.P.
        The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations.
        Neurosci BioBehav Rev. 2000; 24: 417-463https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00014-2
        • Harris R.P.
        • Helfand M.
        • Woolf S.H.
        • et al.
        Current methods of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: a review of the process.
        Am J Prev Med. 2001; 20: 21-35https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(01)00261-6
        • Brody G.H.
        • Murry V.M.
        • Gerrard M.
        • et al.
        The Strong African American Families Program: translating research into prevention programming.
        Child Dev. 2004; 75: 900-917https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00713.x
        • Murry V.M.
        • Berkel C.
        • Brody G.H.
        • Gerrard M.
        • Gibbons F.X.
        The Strong African American Families program: longitudinal pathways to sexual risk reduction.
        J Adolesc Health. 2007; 41: 333-342https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.04.003
        • Lederman R.P.
        • Chan W.
        • Roberts-Gray C.
        Sexual risk attitudes and intentions of youth aged 12-14 years: survey comparisons of parent-teen prevention and control groups.
        Behav Med. 2004; 29: 155-163https://doi.org/10.3200/BMED.29.4.155-166
        • Lederman R.P.
        • Chan W.
        • Roberts-Gray C.
        Parent-adolescent relationship education (PARE): program delivery to reduce risks for adolescent pregnancy and STDs.
        Behav Med. 2008; 33: 137-143https://doi.org/10.3200/BMED.33.4.137-144
        • Stanton B.
        • Cole M.
        • Galbraith J.
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of a parent intervention: parents can make a difference in long-term adolescent risk behaviors, perceptions, and knowledge.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004; 158: 947-955https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.158.10.947
        • Stanton B.F.
        • Li X.
        • Galbraith J.
        • et al.
        Parental underestimates of adolescent risk behavior: a randomized, controlled trial of a parental monitoring intervention.
        J Adolesc Health. 2000; 26: 18-26https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(99)00022-1
        • Anderson N.L.R.
        • Koniak-Griffin D.
        • Keenan C.K.
        • Uman G.
        • Duggal B.R.
        • Casey C.
        Evaluating the outcomes of parent-child family life education... including commentary by Hayman LL.
        Sch Inq Nurs Pract. 1999; 13: 211-238
        • Forehand R.
        • Armistead L.
        • Long N.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of a parent-based sexual-risk prevention program for African American preadolescents: a randomized controlled trial.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007; 161: 1123-1129https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.161.12.1123
        • Guilamo-Ramos V.
        • Bouris A.
        • Jaccard J.
        • Gonzalez B.
        • McCoy W.
        • Aranda D.
        A parent-based intervention to reduce sexual risk behavior in early adolescence: building alliances between physicians, social workers, and parents.
        J Adolesc Health. 2011; 48: 159-163https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.06.007
        • Haggerty K.P.
        • Skinner M.L.
        • MacKenzie E.P.
        • Catalano R.F.
        A randomized trial of Parents Who Care: effects on key outcomes at 24-month follow-up.
        Prev Sci. 2007; 8: 249-260https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-007-0077-2
        • Miller B.C.
        • Norton M.C.
        • Jenson G.O.
        Pregnancy prevention programs: impact evaluation of facts and feelings: a home-based video sex education curriculum.
        Family Relations. 1993; 42: 392-400https://doi.org/10.2307/585339
        • Blake S.M.
        • Simkin L.
        • Ledsky R.
        • Perkins C.
        • Calabrese J.M.
        Effects of a parent-child communications intervention on young adolescents’ risk for early onset of sexual intercourse.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 2001; 33: 52-61https://doi.org/10.2307/2673750
        • Evans W.D.
        • Davis K.C.
        • Ashley O.S.
        • Blitstein J.
        • Koo H.
        • Zhang Y.
        Efficacy of abstinence promotion media messages: findings from an online randomized trial.
        J Adolesc Health. 2009; 45: 409-416https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.02.014
        • Schuster M.A.
        • Corona R.
        • Elliott M.N.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a new worksite based parenting programme to promote parent-adolescent communication about sexual health: randomised controlled trial.
        BMJ. 2008; 337: a308https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39609.657581.25
        • Huston R.L.
        • Martin L.J.
        • Foulds D.M.
        Effect of a program to facilitate parent-child communication about sex.
        Clin Pediatr. 1990; 29: 626-633https://doi.org/10.1177/000992289002901101
        • Lefkowitz E.S.
        • Sigman M.
        • Au T.K.
        Helping mothers discuss sexuality and AIDS with adolescents.
        Child Dev. 2000; 71: 1383-1394https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00234
        • Guilamo-Ramos V.
        • Jaccard J.
        • Dittus P.
        • et al.
        A comparative study of interventions for delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse among Latino and black youth.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2011; 43: 247-254https://doi.org/10.1363/4324711
        • Prado G.
        • Pantin H.
        • Huang S.
        • et al.
        Effects of a family intervention in reducing HIV risk behaviors among high-risk Hispanic adolescents: a randomized controlled trial.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012; 166: 127-133https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.189
        • Wang X.X.
        • Ying P.
        • Diao F.
        • et al.
        Altered protein prenylation in Sertoli cells is associated with adult infertility resulting from childhood mumps infection.
        J Exp Med. 2013; 210: 1559-1574https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20121806
        • Weekes C.V.
        • Haas B.K.
        • Gosselin K.P.
        Expectations and self-efficacy of African American parents who discuss sexuality with their adolescent sons: an intervention study.
        Public Health Nurs. 2014; 31: 253-261https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12084