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Overview of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Systematic Review

  • Allison M. Glasser
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Allison M. Glasser, MPH, 900 G. St. NW, 4th Floor, Washington DC 20001.
    Affiliations
    The Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies at Truth Initiative, Washington, District of Columbia
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  • Lauren Collins
    Affiliations
    The Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies at Truth Initiative, Washington, District of Columbia
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  • Jennifer L. Pearson
    Affiliations
    The Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies at Truth Initiative, Washington, District of Columbia
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  • Haneen Abudayyeh
    Affiliations
    The Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies at Truth Initiative, Washington, District of Columbia
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  • Raymond S. Niaura
    Affiliations
    The Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies at Truth Initiative, Washington, District of Columbia

    Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

    Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, District of Columbia
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  • David B. Abrams
    Affiliations
    The Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies at Truth Initiative, Washington, District of Columbia

    Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

    Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, District of Columbia
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  • Andrea C. Villanti
    Affiliations
    The Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies at Truth Initiative, Washington, District of Columbia

    Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland
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Published:December 01, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.036

      Context

      Rapid developments in e-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and the evolution of the overall tobacco product marketplace warrant frequent evaluation of the published literature. The purpose of this article is to report updated findings from a comprehensive review of the published scientific literature on ENDS.

      Evidence acquisition

      The authors conducted a systematic review of published empirical research literature on ENDS through May 31, 2016, using a detailed search strategy in the PubMed electronic database, expert review, and additional targeted searches. Included studies presented empirical findings and were coded to at least one of nine topics: (1) Product Features; (2) Health Effects; (3) Consumer Perceptions; (4) Patterns of Use; (5) Potential to Induce Dependence; (6) Smoking Cessation; (7) Marketing and Communication; (8) Sales; and (9) Policies; reviews and commentaries were excluded. Data from included studies were extracted by multiple coders (October 2015 to August 2016) into a standardized form and synthesized qualitatively by topic.

      Evidence synthesis

      There were 687 articles included in this systematic review. The majority of studies assessed patterns of ENDS use and consumer perceptions of ENDS, followed by studies examining health effects of vaping and product features.

      Conclusions

      Studies indicate that ENDS are increasing in use, particularly among current smokers, pose substantially less harm to smokers than cigarettes, are being used to reduce/quit smoking, and are widely available. More longitudinal studies and controlled trials are needed to evaluate the impact of ENDS on population-level tobacco use and determine the health effects of longer-term vaping.
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