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- Energy drinks: an assessment of their market size, consumer demographics, ingredient profile, functionality, and regulations in the United States.Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2010; 9: 303-317https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00111.x
Health Canada. Category Specific Guidance for Temporary Marketing Authorization - Caffeinated Energy Drinks. www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/legislation/guide-ld/guidance-caf-drink-boiss-tma-amt-eng.php. Published December 2013. Accessed September 25, 2016.
- Health effects of energy drinks on children, adolescents, and young adults.Pediatrics. 2011; 127: 511-528https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-3592
- Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks.J Am Pharm Assoc. 2008; 48: e55-e67https://doi.org/10.1331/JAPhA.2008.07055
- Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes.BMJ Open. 2016; 6: e010380https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010380
- Review of published cases of adverse cardiovascular events after ingestion of energy drinks.Am J Cardiol. 2014; 113: 168-172https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.08.058
- An emerging adolescent health risk: caffeinated energy drink consumption patterns among high school students.Prev Med. 2014; 62: 54-59https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.01.019
- Caffeinated energy drinks—a growing problem.Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009; 99: 1-10https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.08.001
Health Canada. Caffeine in Foods. www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/addit/caf/food-caf-aliments-eng.php. Published March 2012. Accessed September 24, 2016.
- If it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck … : Energy “shots” should be regulated as energy drinks in Canada.Can J Public Health. 2016; 107: E133-E135https://doi.org/10.17269/cjph.107.5199
- Evidence and knowledge gaps for the association between energy drink use and high-risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults.Nutr Rev. 2014; 72: 87-97https://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12129
- Use of highly fortified products among U.S. Adults.Nutr Today. 2015; 50: 294-300https://doi.org/10.1097/NT.0000000000000129
- Perceptions and knowledge of caffeinated energy drinks: results of focus groups with Canadian youth.J Nutr Educ Behav. 2017; 49: 304-311https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2016.11.013
- Energy drink and energy shot use in the military.Nutr Rev. 2014; 72: 72-77https://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12139
- Canadian Panel Book.Spring, Legerweb Community2015
Statistics Canada. 2011 National Household Survey. www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E. Accessed February 7, 2017.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Adverse event reports allegedly related to 5-Hour Energy, Monster and Rockstar. www.fda.gov/downloads/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/OfficeofFoods/CFSAN/CFSANFOIAElectronicReadingRoom/UCM328270.pdf. Published November 16, 2012. Accessed May 3, 2017.