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Combined Healthy Behaviors and Healthcare Services Use in Older Adults

      Introduction

      Data on the combined impact of healthy behaviors on healthcare use in older adults are limited.

      Methods

      Study with community-dwelling individuals aged ≥60 years from the Spanish Seniors-ENRICA cohort, recruited in 2008–2010, followed through 2012–2013, and analyzed in 2016 (N=2,021). At baseline, the following healthy behaviors were self-reported: three traditional (never smoking, being physically active, having a healthy diet) and three emerging (sleeping 7–8 hours/day, sitting <8 hours/day, not living alone). Outcomes were self-reported polypharmacy (five or more drugs per day), primary care physician visits (one or more per month), medical specialist visits (more than one per year), and hospitalization (one or more in the last year). The associations between baseline healthy behaviors and healthcare services used in 2012–2013 were summarized with ORs and 95% CIs from multiple logistic regression, adjusting for demographics, lifestyles, comorbidities, and baseline health services used.

      Results

      Most single healthy behaviors were associated with lower use of most health services. Compared with participants with zero or one healthy behavior, those with five or six healthy behaviors showed lower risk of polypharmacy (OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.24, 0.85, p-trend=0.001), visits to the primary care physician (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.26, 0.96, p-trend=0.013), and hospitalization (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.24, 1.01, p-trend=0.016). No association was found with visits to the medical specialist.

      Conclusions

      The combination of five to six healthy behaviors in older adults is associated with half the risk of polypharmacy and using several healthcare services. In an era of constrained resources in most countries, this information may help inform health policy to control healthcare spending in the future.
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