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- Emergency departments are underutilized sites for suicide prevention.Crisis. 2010; 31: 1-6https://doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000001
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Suicide Prevention Resource Center. Caring for adult patients with suicide risk: a consensus guide for emergency departments. www.sprc.org/edguide〉. Accessed November 22, 2017.
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2011 Emergency department summary tables. Table 17. www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/suicide.htm. Accessed January 31, 2017.
- Trends in U.S. emergency department visits for attempted suicide and self-inflicted injury, 1993–2008.Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012; 34: 557-565https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2012.03.020
- Trends in U.S. emergency department visits for suicide attempts, 1992–2001.Crisis. 2008; 29: 73-80https://doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910.29.2.73
- National differences between ED and ambulatory visits for suicidal ideation and attempts and depression.Am J Emerg Med. 2014; 32: 443-447https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2013.12.044
The Joint Commission. Sentinel Event Alert 56: detecting and treating suicide ideation in all settings. www.jointcommission.org/sea_issue_56/. Published February 24, 2016. Accessed January 18, 2016.
National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention. Suicide care in systems framework. http://actionallianceforsuicideprevention.org/sites/actionallianceforsuicideprevention.org/files/taskforces/ClinicalCareInterventionReport.pdf. Published 2011. Accessed November 22, 2017.
Zero Suicide in Health and Behavioral Health Care, a project of the Suicide Prevention Resource Center and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention. Zero suicide toolkit. http://zerosuicide.sprc.org/. Accessed November 22, 2017.
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- The relationship between firearms and suicide: a review of the literature.Aggress Violent Behav. 1999; 4: 59-75https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789(97)00057-8
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- The accessibility of firearms and risk for suicide and homicide victimization among household members: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Ann Intern Med. 2014; 160: 101-110https://doi.org/10.7326/M13-1301
- Means restriction for suicide prevention.Lancet. 2012; 379: 2393-2399https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60521-2
- Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review.JAMA. 2005; 294: 2064-2074https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.294.16.2064
- Suicide and violence prevention: parent education in the emergency department.J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1999; 38: 250-255https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199903000-00010
- Implementing means restriction education in urban EDs.Am J Emerg Med. 1998; 16: 257-261https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-6757(98)90096-1
- Lethal means counseling for parents of youth seeking emergency care for suicidality.West J Emerg Med. 2016; 17: 8-14https://doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2015.11.28590
- Change in emergency department providers’ beliefs and practices after use of new protocols for suicidal patients.Psychiatr Serv. 2015; 66: 625-631https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201400244
- Firearm restriction as suicide prevention: variation in belief and practice among providers in an urban emergency department.Inj Prev. 2010; 16: 278-281https://doi.org/10.1136/ip.2009.025296
- Lethal means access and assessment among suicidal emergency department patients.Depress Anxiety. 2016; 33: 502-511https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22486
U.S. DHHS, Office of the Surgeon General and National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention. 2012 National strategy for suicide prevention: goals and objectives for action. www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/national-strategy-suicide-prevention/full_report-rev.pdf. Published September 2012. Accessed January 31, 2017.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Emergency department means restriction education intervention in the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices. http://legacy.nreppadmin.net/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=15. Accessed November 22, 2017.
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense. VA/DoD clinical practice guidelines. assessment and management of patients at risk for suicide. Prepared by the Assessment and Management of Risk for Suicide Working Group. www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/MH/srb/. Published June 2013. Accessed January 18, 2017.
Workgroup on Suicidal Behaviors. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the assessment and treatment of patients with suicidal behaviors. https://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/suicide.pdf. Published November 2003. Accessed January 31, 2017.
- Factors influencing the implementation of clinical guidelines for health care professionals: a systematic meta-review.BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2008; 8: 38https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-8-38
CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/. Accessed January 31, 2017.
- Gun ownership and social gun culture.Inj Prev. 2016; 22: 216-220https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2015-041586
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Provider of service files. https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Downloadable-Public-Use-Files/Provider-of-Services/. Accessed November 22, 2017.
Kalsbeek WD, Agans RP. Sampling and weighting in household telephone surveys. In: Lepkowski JM, Tucker C, Brick JM, et al., eds. Advances in Telephone Survey Methodology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008:29–55. doi:10.1002/9780470173404.ch2
- Standard Definitions: Final Dispositions of Case Codes and Outcome Rates for Surveys. 5th ed. American Association for Public Opinion Research, Lenexa, KS2008
- Battle over Florida legislation casts a chill over gun inquiries.JAMA. 2015; 313: 1893-1895https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.3410
- Yes, you can: physicians, patients, and firearms.Ann Intern Med. 2016; 165: 205-213https://doi.org/10.7326/M15-2905
- Lethal means restriction for suicide prevention: beliefs and behaviors of emergency department providers.Depress Anxiety. 2013; 30: 1013-1020https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22075
- Clinician attitudes, screening practices, and interventions to reduce firearm-related injury.Epidemiol Rev. 2016; 38: 87-110https://doi.org/10.1093/epirev/mxv005
- Emergency staff reactions to suicidal and self-harming patients.Eur J Emerg Med. 2005; 12: 169-178https://doi.org/10.1097/00063110-200508000-00005
- Physicians, firearms, and free speech—overturning Florida’s firearm-safety gag rule.N Engl J Med. 2017; 376: 1901-1903https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1702516
- Feasibility and acceptability of interventions to delay gun access in VA mental health settings.Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012; 34: 692-698https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2012.07.012
- Public opinion regarding whether speaking with patients about firearms is appropriate: results of a national survey.Ann Intern Med. 2016; 165: 543-550https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-0739
- Loaded questions: internet commenters’ opinions on physician-patient firearm safety conversations.West J Emerg Med. 2017; 18: 903-912https://doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2017.6.34849
Simonetti JA, Rowhani-Rahbar A, King C, Bennett E, Rivara FP. Evaluation of a community-based safe firearm and ammunition storage intervention. Inj Prev. In press. Online June 22, 2017.
- Firearm-related injury and death in the United States: a call to action from 8 health professional organizations and the American Bar Association.Ann Intern Med. 2015; 162: 513-516https://doi.org/10.7326/M15-0337
- Temporary transfer of firearms from the home to prevent suicide: legal obstacles and recommendations.JAMA Intern Med. 2017; 177: 96-101https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5704
- Background checks for all gun buyers and gun violence restraining orders: state efforts to keep guns from high-risk persons.J Law Med Ethics. 2017; 45: 98-102https://doi.org/10.1177/1073110517703344
- Implementation and effectiveness of Connecticut’s risk-based gun removal law: does it prevent suicides?.Law Contemp Probl. 2017; 80: 179-208
American Medical Association House of Delegates. Resolution 419. Improving physicians’ ability to discuss firearm safety. www.ama-assn.org/sites/default/files/media-browser/public/hod/a17-sunday-tote-v2.pdf. Published June 2017. Accessed November 22, 2017.
Allchin A, Chaplin V. Breaking through barriers: the emerging role of healthcare provider training programs in firearm suicide prevention. Educational fund to stop gun violence on behalf of the Consortium for Risk-Based Firearm Policy. Consortium for Risk-Based Firearm Policy. https://efsgv.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Breaking-through-Barriers-September-2017-Consortium-for-Risk-Based-Firearm-Policy-FINAL.pdf. Published 2017. Accessed November 22, 2017.
Kovar V. Structure and delivery of adult emergency and crisis mental health services in the Mountain West region. www.ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/PublicHealth/research/ResearchProjects/piper/Documents/Structure%20and%20Delivery%20of%20Adult%20Emergency%20and%20Crisis%20Mental%20Health%20Services%20in%20the%20Mountain%20West%20Region.pdf. Published September 2016. Accessed November 22, 2017.
- The American College of Preventive Medicine policy recommendations on reducing and preventing firearm-related injuries and deaths.Am J Prev Med. 2016; 51: 1084-1089https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.09.023
Attorney General of Massachusetts. Talking to patients about gun safety. www.mass.gov/ago/doing-business-in-massachusetts/health-care/talking-to-patients-about-gun-safety.html. Published 2017. Accessed February 15, 2017.
- Suicide prevention in an emergency department population: the ED-SAFE Study.JAMA Psychiatry. 2017; 74 (563–557)https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0678
Suicide Prevention Resource Center. CALM: counseling on access to lethal means online course. www.sprc.org/resources-programs/calm-counseling-access-lethal-means. Accessed February 1, 2017.