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E-cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Use and Switching Among Smokers: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey

Published:February 08, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2017.12.010

      Introduction

      Assessing the extent that cigarette smokers use or switch to e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco can help inform the population health impact of these products. This study estimated the prevalence of e-cigarette and smokeless tobacco use and switching among current and recent former adult cigarette smokers.

      Methods

      Data from the 2012–2013 (n=8,891) and 2013–2014 (n=11,379) National Adult Tobacco Survey were analyzed in 2016. Response rates for this telephone survey were 44.9% and 36.1%, respectively. Tobacco product use was assessed by smoking status.

      Results

      Current e-cigarette use increased for all groups, with a greater increase among recent quitters, 9.1% (95% CI=7.1%, 11.1%) in 2012–2013 and 15.8% (95% CI=13.7%, 17.9%) in 2013–2014, than smokers with an unsuccessful quit attempt, 10.4% (95% CI=9.1%, 11.7%) in 2012–2013 and 14.8% (95% CI=13.5%, 16.1%) in 2013–2014, or smokers with no quit attempt, 5.9% (95% CI=4.8%, 6.9%) in 2012–2013 and 10.7% (95% CI=9.4%, 12.0%) in 2013–2014. Between 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, current use of smokeless tobacco remained steady for recent quitters (4.6% to 4.7%, p=0.92) and smokers with no quit attempt (4.0% to 4.3%, p=0.97), and decreased in smokers with an unsuccessful quit attempt (5.7% to 3.8%, p=0.004). More recent quitters completely switched to e-cigarettes in the past year (15.3% in 2012–2013, 25.7% in 2013–2014) than to smokeless tobacco (4.6% in 2012–2013, 4.5% in 2013–2014).

      Conclusions

      Current and recent former adult smokers are more likely to use e-cigarettes than smokeless tobacco. Current e-cigarette use was most prevalent among unsuccessful quitters and recent quitters, who were substantially more likely to report complete switching to e-cigarettes than smokeless tobacco.
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