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Lay Beliefs About the Accuracy and Value of Cancer Screening

      Introduction

      Appreciating the accuracy and value of cancer screening is essential to informed decision making about screening. This study’s objectives were to (1) examine people’s beliefs about the accuracy and value of cancer screening, and (2) determine whether sociodemographics, cancer beliefs, and shared decision making are associated with these beliefs.

      Methods

      Data from the National Cancer Institute’s Health Information National Trends Survey (cycle 4, August–November 2014) were used. Respondents were non-institutionalized adults (aged ≥18 years, n=3,677). Weighted generalized linear modeling was used to examine bivariate and multivariate associations between key covariates and beliefs about cancer screening (assessed by four-item scale and independently). Secondary analyses examined whether these beliefs were associated with self-reported cancer screening. Data were analyzed between 2016 and 2017.

      Results

      Only 5.6% (n=189) of respondents answered all four cancer screening items correctly. Men, racial/ethnic minorities, and those with lower education and higher cancer fatalism were less likely to have accurate beliefs about cancer screening. However, those who reported shared decision making for colorectal cancer screening were more likely to know that “when a test finds something abnormal, more tests are needed to know if it is cancer” and “when a test finds something abnormal, it is [not] very likely to be cancer” (adjusted risk ratio=1.13, p<0.01, adjusted risk ratio=1.25, p<0.01). Beliefs were not associated with likelihood of past mammography or Pap testing.

      Conclusions

      Educators, researchers, and clinicians should consider opportunities (e.g., through shared decision making) to improve the accuracy of individuals’ beliefs about cancer screening.
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