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Advancing Methods for Studying Complex Systems: Moving Beyond Linear Thinking

      Life is complicated. Some variant of this adage is uttered by everyone who walks this earth, but scientific methods have not always matched the complexity of their subject. Our study designs are largely reductionist.
      • Greene J.A.
      • Loscalzo J.
      Putting the patient back together—social medicine, network medicine, and the limits of Reductionism.
      Our experiments deduce causality by manipulating variables and measuring the results. Our conceptual models are often linear; we assume that outcomes (dependent variables) are products of the factors (independent variables) we manipulate.
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