Socioeconomic Disparities in Smoking Among U.S. Adults With Depression, 2005–2014


      The purpose of this study is to estimate changes in the cigarette smoking prevalence among U.S. adults with and without depression from 2005 to 2014 by income and education level and overall.


      This study examined data from adult respondents (aged ≥18 years) in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual cross-sectional study of U.S. individuals. Data from the years 2005 to 2014 were analyzed for a total analytic sample of n=378,733. The prevalence of past-month cigarette smoking was examined annually from 2005 to 2014 among adults with and without past-year major depression, overall and by income/education, using linear trend analyses. Data analysis occurred in 2017.


      The prevalence of smoking declined significantly from 2005 to 2014 among those with depression (37.62% to 34.01%; p<0.001) and without depression (23.99% to 19.87%; p<0.001). Yet, smoking remained nearly twice as common among those with depression during this period. Among adults with depression in the lowest income and education groups, the prevalence of smoking was more than double the prevalence of smoking among adults with depression in the highest income and education groups.


      Disparities in smoking prevalence are pronounced when depression and SES are considered simultaneously. Targeted public health and clinical efforts to reduce smoking among adult smokers of lower SES with depression are needed.
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