Advertisement

Proximity to Liquor Stores and Adolescent Alcohol Intake: A Prospective Study

      Introduction

      Cross-sectional studies have reported associations between liquor store availability and alcohol use among adolescents, but few prospective studies have confirmed this association. The aim of this study was to examine whether proximity to liquor stores at age 14 years was associated with alcohol intake at ages 14, 17, and 20 years.

      Methods

      Participants of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n=999) self-reported alcohol intake at age 14 years (early adolescence, 2003–2005); age 17 years (middle adolescence, 2006–2008); and age 20 years (late adolescence, 2009–2011). A GIS measured proximity to the closest liquor store from participants’ home and school addresses at age 14 years. Regression analyses in 2017 assessed the relationship between distance to the closest liquor store around home, school, or both (≤800 m versus >800 m) and alcohol intake.

      Results

      In cross-sectional analyses (age 14 years), having a liquor store within 800 m of school was associated with ever having part of an alcoholic drink (OR=2.34, p=0.003). Also, having a liquor store within 800 m of home or school was associated with ever having part of an alcoholic drink (OR=1.49, p=0.029) and ever having engaged in heavy drinking (OR=1.79, p=0.023). In prospective analyses, liquor store proximity at age 14 years was a significant predictor of alcohol intake at age 17 years (OR=2.34, p=0.032) but not at age 20 years.

      Conclusions

      Liquor store availability in early adolescence may be a risk factor for alcohol intake in early and middle, but not late, adolescence. Improved understanding of the longer-term impacts of liquor store exposure on sensitive populations could help inform future licensing regulations.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • WHO
        Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health—2014 edition.
        WHO, 2014
        • Kann L.
        • McManus T.
        • Harris W.A.
        • et al.
        Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2015.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2016; 65: 1-74
      1. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Published 2016.
        • Johnston L.D.
        • O’Malley P.M.
        • Miech R.A.
        • Bachman J.G.
        • Schulenberg J.E.
        Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975–2015: 2015 Overview—Key Findings on Adolescent Drug Use.
        Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI2016
        • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
        National Drug Strategy Household Survey detailed report 2013.
        (Drug statistics series no. 28. Cat. no. PHE 183) Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra2014
        • Agalioti-Sgompou V.
        • Christie S.
        • Fiorini P.
        • et al.
        Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use Among Young People in England in 2014.
        Health and Social Care Information Centre, United Kingdom2015
        • Chainey T.A.
        • Stephens C.
        “Let’s get wasted”: a discourse analysis of teenagers’ talk about binge drinking.
        J Health Psychol. 2016; 21: 628-639https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105314532972
        • U.S. DHHS
        The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking.
        U.S. DHHS, Rockville, MD2007
        • Miller J.W.
        • Naimi T.S.
        • Brewer R.D.
        • Jones S.E.
        Binge drinking and associated health risk behaviors among high school students.
        Pediatrics. 2007; 119: 76-85https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-1517
        • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
        Underage drinking.
        NIH, Bethesda, MD2017
      2. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Rockville, MD; 2016.

        • Bava S.
        • Tapert S.F.
        Adolescent brain development and the risk for alcohol and other drug problems.
        Neuropsychol Rev. 2010; 20: 398-413https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-010-9146-6
        • Campbell C.
        • Hahn R.
        • Elder R.
        • et al.
        Guide to community preventive services: the effectiveness of limiting alcohol outlet density as a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: 556-569https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2009.09.028
        • Popova S.
        • Giesbrecht N.
        • Bekmuradov D.
        • Patra J.
        Hours and days of sale and density of alcohol outlets: impacts on alcohol consumption and damage: a systematic review.
        Alcohol Alcohol. 2009; 44: 500-516https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agp054
        • Gmel G.
        • Holmes J.
        • Studer J.
        Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol‐related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence.
        Drug Alcohol Rev. 2016; 35: 40-54https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12304
        • Foster S.
        • Trapp G.S.A.
        • Hooper P.
        • Oddy W.H.
        • Wood L.
        • Knuiman M.
        Liquor landscapes: does access to alcohol outlets influence alcohol consumption in young adults?.
        Health Place. 2017; 45: 17-23https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.008
        • Bryden A.
        • Roberts B.
        • McKee M.
        • Petticrew M.
        A systematic review of the influence on alcohol use of community level availability and marketing of alcohol.
        Health Place. 2012; 18: 349-357https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.11.003
        • Newnham J.P.
        • Evans S.F.
        • Michael C.A.
        • Stanley F.J.
        • Landau L.I.
        Effects of frequent ultrasound during pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial.
        Lancet. 1993; 342: 887-891https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(93)91944-H
        • Hodge A.
        • Patterson A.J.
        • Brown W.J.
        • Ireland P.
        • Giles G.
        The Anti Cancer Council of Victoria Food Frequency Questionnaire: relative validity of nutrient intakes compared with weighed food records in young to middle-aged women in a study of iron supplementation.
        Aust N Z J Public Health. 2000; 24: 576-583https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-842X.2000.tb00520.x
        • Western Australian Police Force
        Alcohol and the Law.
        Western Australian Police Force, Western Australia2014
        • Colabianchi N.
        • Dowda M.
        • Pfeiffer K.A.
        • Porter D.E.
        • Almeida M.J.C.
        • Pate R.R.
        Towards an understanding of salient neighborhood boundaries: adolescent reports of an easy walking distance and convenient driving distance.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007; 4: 66https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-4-66
        • Rowland B.
        • Toumbourou J.W.
        • Satyen L.
        • et al.
        Associations between alcohol outlet densities and adolescent alcohol consumption: a study in Australian students.
        Addict Behav. 2014; 39: 282-288https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.001
        • Stanley L.R.
        • Henry K.L.
        • Swaim R.C.
        Physical, social, and perceived availabilities of alcohol and last month alcohol use in rural and small urban communities.
        J Youth Adolesc. 2011; 40: 1203-1214https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9556-z
        • Kuntsche E.
        • Kuendig H.
        • Gmel G.
        Alcohol outlet density, perceived availability and adolescent alcohol use: a multilevel structural equation model.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008; 62: 811-816https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2007.065367
        • Rowland B.
        • Evans-Whipp T.
        • Hemphill S.
        • Leung R.
        • Livingston M.
        • Toumbourou J.
        The density of alcohol outlets and adolescent alcohol consumption: an Australian longitudinal analysis.
        Health Place. 2016; 37: 43-49https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.11.004
        • Rowland B.
        • Toumbourou J.W.
        • Livingston M.
        The association of alcohol outlet density with illegal underage adolescent purchasing of alcohol.
        J Adolesc Health. 2015; 56: 146-152https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.08.005
        • Chen M.-J.
        • Gruenewald P.J.
        • Remer L.G.
        Does alcohol outlet density affect youth access to alcohol?.
        J Adolesc Health. 2009; 44: 582-589https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.10.136
        • Alcohol Concern Youth Policy Project
        One on Every Corner—The Relationship Between Off-License Density and Alcohol Harms in Young People.
        Alcohol Concern, London2011
        • Pasch K.E.
        • Komro K.A.
        • Perry C.L.
        • Hearst M.O.
        • Farbakhsh K.
        Outdoor alcohol advertising near schools: what does it advertise and how is it related to intentions and use of alcohol among young adolescents?.
        J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2007; 68: 587-596https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2007.68.587
        • Jones S.C.
        • Magee C.A.
        Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.
        Alcohol Alcohol. 2011; 46: 630-637https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agr080

      CHORUS Manuscript

      View Open Manuscript