Associations of Prenatal and Child Sugar Intake With Child Cognition

  • Juliana F.W. Cohen
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Juliana F. W. Cohen, ScM, ScD, Department of Health Sciences, Merrimack College, 315 Turnpike Street, North Andover MA 01845.
    Affiliations
    Department of Health Sciences, Merrimack College, North Andover, Massachusetts

    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman
    Affiliations
    Division of Chronic Disease Research Across the Lifecourse, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Jessica Young
    Affiliations
    Division of Chronic Disease Research Across the Lifecourse, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Emily Oken
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

    Division of Chronic Disease Research Across the Lifecourse, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, Massachusetts
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      Introduction

      Sugar consumption among Americans is above recommended limits, and excess sugar intake may influence cognition. The aim of this study was to examine associations of pregnancy and offspring sugar consumption (sucrose, fructose) with child cognition. Additionally, associations of maternal and child consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), other beverages (diet soda, juice), and fruit with child cognition were examined.

      Methods

      Among 1,234 mother–child pairs enrolled 1999–2002 in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort, in 2017 diet was assessed during pregnancy and early childhood, and cognitive outcomes in early and mid-childhood (median ages 3.3 and 7.7 years). Analyses used linear regression models adjusted for maternal and child characteristics.

      Results

      Maternal sucrose consumption (mean 49.8 grams/day [SD=12.9]) was inversely associated with mid-childhood Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT-II) non-verbal scores (–1.5 points per 15 grams/day, 95% CI= –2.8, –0.2). Additionally, maternal SSB consumption was inversely associated with mid-childhood cognition, and diet soda was inversely associated with early and mid-childhood cognition scores. Early childhood consumption of SSBs was inversely associated with mid-childhood KBIT-II verbal scores (–2.4 points per serving/day, 95% CI= –4.3, –0.5) while fruit consumption was associated with higher cognitive scores in early and mid-childhood. Maternal and child fructose and juice consumption were not associated with cognition. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, the association between maternal diet soda consumption and mid-childhood KBIT-II verbal scores remained significant.

      Conclusions

      Sugar consumption, especially from SSBs, during pregnancy and childhood, and maternal diet soda consumption may adversely impact child cognition, while child fruit consumption may lead to improvements. Interventions and policies that promote healthier diets may prevent adverse effects on childhood cognition.
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