Short-term Lost Productivity per Victim: Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, or Stalking


      The purpose of this study is to estimate victims’ lifetime short-term lost productivity because of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking.


      U.S. nationally representative data from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey were used to estimate a regression-adjusted average per victim (female and male) and total population number of cumulative short-term lost work and school days (or lost productivity) because of victimizations over victims’ lifetimes. Victims’ lost productivity was valued using a U.S. daily production estimate. Analysis was conducted in 2017.


      Non-institutionalized adults with some lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking (n=6,718 respondents; survey-weighted n=130,795,789) reported nearly 741 million lost productive days because of victimizations by an average of 2.5 perpetrators per victim. The adjusted per victim average was 4.9 (95% CI=3.9, 5.9) days, controlling for victim, perpetrator, and violence type factors. The estimated societal cost of this short-term lost productivity was $730 per victim, or $110 billion across the lifetimes of all victims (2016 USD). Factors associated with victims having a higher number of lost days included a higher number of perpetrators and being female, as well as sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking victimization by an intimate partner perpetrator, stalking victimization by an acquaintance perpetrator, and sexual violence or stalking victimization by a family member perpetrator.


      Short-term lost productivity represents a minimum economic valuation of the immediate negative effects of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. Victims’ lost productivity affects family members, colleagues, and employers.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Smith S.G.
        • Chen J.
        • Basile K.C.
        • et al.
        The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010–2012 State Report.
        National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC, Atlanta, GA2017
        • Peterson C.
        • DeGue S.
        • Florence C.
        • Lokey C.N.
        Lifetime economic burden of rape among U.S. adults.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017; 52: 691-701
        • U.S. CDC
        Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States.
        CDC, Atlanta, GA2003
        • Corso P.S.
        • Mercy J.A.
        • Simon T.R.
        • Finkelstein E.A.
        • Miller T.R.
        Medical costs and productivity losses due to interpersonal and self-directed violence in the United States.
        Am J Prev Med. 2007; 32: 474-482
      1. U.S. CDC. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey. Published April 28, 2017. Accessed June 2, 2017.

        • Grosse S.D.
        • Krueger K.V.
        • Mvundura M.
        Economic productivity by age and sex: 2007 estimates for the United States.
        Med Care. 2009; 47: S94-S103
      2. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Table 1.1.4. Price Indexes for Gross Domestic Product. Published 2016. Accessed June 2, 2017.

        • Rose C.E.
        • Martin S.W.
        • Wannemuehler K.A.
        • Plikaytis B.D.
        On the use of zero-inflated and hurdle models for modeling vaccine adverse event count data.
        J Biopharm Stat. 2006; 16: 463-481
        • Niolon P.
        • Kearns M.
        • Dills J.
        • et al.
        Preventing Intimate Partner Violence Across the Lifespan: A Technical Package of Programs, Policies, and Practices.
        National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC, Atlanta, GA2017
        • Basile K.
        • DeGue S.
        • Jones K.
        • et al.
        STOP SV: A Technical Package to Prevent Sexual Violence.
        National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC, Atlanta, GA2016