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- New data on opioid use and prescribing in the United States.JAMA. 2017; 318: 425-426
- Effect of opioid vs nonopioid medications on pain-related function in patients with chronic back pain or hip or knee osteoarthritis pain: the SPACE randomized clinical trial.JAMA. 2018; 319: 872-882
National Institute on Drug Abuse. Overdose death rates. www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates. Updated January 2019. Accessed February 11, 2019.
- Prescription practices involving opioid analgesics among Americans with Medicaid, 2010.J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2015; 26: 182-198
- Potentially inappropriate opioid prescribing, overdose, and mortality in Massachusetts, 2011‒2015.J Gen Intern Med. 2018; 33: 1512-1519
- CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain—United States, 2016.JAMA. 2016; 315: 1624-1645
- Patterns of opioid prescribing and predictors of chronic opioid use in an industrial cohort, 2003 to 2013.J Occup Environ Med. 2018; 60: 457-461
- Opioid prescription drug use and expenditures in US outpatient physician offices: evidence from two nationally representative surveys.Cancer Ther Oncol Int J. 2017; 3555611
- Determinants of opioid prescribing for nonmalignant chronic pain in US outpatient settings.Pain Med. 2018; 19: 524-532
- Opioid prescribing patterns for non-malignant chronic pain for rural versus non-rural US adults: a population-based study using 2010 NAMCS data.BMC Health Serv Res. 2014; 14: 563
- Risk factors for drug dependence among out-patients on opioid therapy in a large US health-care system.Addiction. 2010; 105: 1776-1782
- Correlates of prescription opioid use, misuse, use disorders, and motivations for misuse among US adults.J Clin Psychiatry. 2018; 79: 17m11973
- Outpatient, combined use of opioid and benzodiazepine medications in the United States, 1993‒2014.Prev Med Rep. 2018; 9: 49-54
- Cohort study of the impact of high-dose opioid analgesics on overdose mortality.Pain Med. 2016; 17: 85-98
- The growing problem of co-treatment with opioids and benzodiazepines.BMJ. 2017; 356: j1224
- FDA requires strong warnings for opioid analgesics, prescription opioid cough products, and benzodiazepine labeling related to serious risks and death from combined use.Published 2016www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm518697.htmDate accessed: February 11, 2019
- Effect of perioperative gabapentin on postoperative pain resolution and opioid cessation in a mixed surgical cohort: a randomized clinical trial.JAMA Surg. 2018; 153: 303-311
- Pregabalin and the risk for opioid-related death: a nested case-control study.Ann Intern Med. 2018; 169: 732-734
- Gabapentin, opioids, and the risk of opioid-related death: a population-based nested case-control study.PLoS Med. 2017; 14e1002396
- Risk to heroin users of polydrug use of pregabalin or gabapentin.Addiction. 2017; 112: 1580-1589
- Abuse and diversion of gabapentin among nonmedical prescription opioid users in Appalachian Kentucky.Am J Psychiatry. 2015; 172: 487-488
- U.S. Emergency Department visits resulting from nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals, 2016.Am J Prev Med. 2019; 56: 639-647
- Management of postoperative pain: a clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and the American Society of anesthesiologists’ Committee on Regional Anesthesia, Executive Committee, and Administrative Council.J Pain. 2016; 17: 131-157
- Postoperative multimodal analgesia pain management with nonopioid analgesics and techniques: a review.JAMA Surg. 2017; 152: 691-697
- Gabapentin and pregabalin for pain - is increased prescribing a cause for concern?.N Engl J Med. 2017; 377: 411-414
- Gabapentin-related suicide: myth or fact?.Surg Neurol Int. 2018; 9: 210
- Combined gabapentinoid and opioid use: the consequences of shifting prescribing trends.Ann Intern Med. 2018; 169: 727-728
HHS, CDC, National Center for Health Statistics. National ambulatory medical care survey: 2015 state and national summary tables. www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ahcd/namcs_summary/2015_namcs_web_tables.pdf. Published August 2017. Accessed February 11, 2019.
National Center for Health Statistics. NAMCS scope and sample design. www.cdc.gov/nchs/ahcd/ahcd_scope.htm. Updated January 15, 2010. Accessed February 11, 2019.
Cerner Corporation. Multum lexicon. www.multum.com/Lexicon.htm. Updated September 29, 2008. Accessed June 2, 2019.
National Center for Health Statistics. 2015 NAMCS micro-data file documentation. ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/Dataset_Documentation/NAMCS/doc2015.pdf. Published August 2017. Accessed February 11, 2019.
- Random forests.Mach Learn. 2001; 45: 5-32
- EULAR recommendations for the health professional's approach to pain management in inflammatory arthritis and osteoarthritis.Ann Rheum Dis. 2018; 77: 797-807
- Are we still prescribing opioids for osteoarthritis?.J Arthroplast. 2017; 32: 3578-3582.e1
- Changing trends in opioid use among patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the United States.Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017; 69: 1733-1740
- Oral or transdermal opioids for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; Cd003115
- Opioid therapy for treating rheumatoid arthritis pain.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; Cd003113
- Efficacy and safety of oral and transdermal opioid analgesics for musculoskeletal pain in older adults: a systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials.J Pain. 2018; 19: 475.e1-475.e24
- Impact of the opioid safety initiative on opioid-related prescribing in veterans.Pain. 2017; 158: 833-839
- Opioid dose reduction in a VA Health Care System - implementation of a primary care population-level initiative.Pain Med. 2015; 16: 1019-1026
- The impact of opioid risk reduction initiatives on high-dose opioid prescribing for patients on chronic opioid therapy.J Pain. 2016; 17: 101-110
- Safer and more appropriate opioid prescribing: a large healthcare system's comprehensive approach.J Eval Clin Pract. 2017; 23: 1173-1179
- Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017; 6Cd007938
- Gabapentin for off-label use: evidence-based or cause for concern?.Subst Abuse. 2018; 121178221818801311
- Medicine use and spending in the U.S.: a review of 2017 and outlook to 2022.Published 2018www.iqvia.com/institute/reports/medicine-use-and-spending-in-the-us-review-of-2017-outlook-to-2022Date accessed: February 11, 2019
CDC. U.S. state prescribing rates, 2015. www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/maps/rxstate2015.html. Updated July 31, 2017. Accessed February 11, 2019.
- Assessment of patient medication adherence, medical record accuracy, and medication blood concentrations for prescription and over-the-counter medications.JAMA Netw Open. 2018; 1e184196
- Medication adherence, medical record accuracy, and medication exposure in real-world patients using comprehensive medication monitoring.PLoS ONE. 2017; 12e0185471