Use of ENDS and Cigarettes During Pregnancy


      Although the use of alternative tobacco products has been increasing among women and adolescents, research on the use of ENDS during pregnancy has been limited. This study examines the prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of ENDS and cigarette use during pregnancy.


      This cross-sectional analysis of the 2016 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System used data on self-reported use of ENDS and cigarettes during the last 3 months of pregnancy among 33,964 women from 29 states and New York City. Data were analyzed in 2019.


      The overall prevalence of prenatal ENDS use was 1.2% and cigarette use was 7.7%, varying from 0.6% and 1.8% in New York City to 4.4% and 22.7% in West Virginia. In adjusted models, white women were more likely to use ENDS (AOR=4.68, 95% CI=2.91, 7.54) than black women. Women with increasing years of education were also less likely to use ENDS. Women who used cigarettes during pregnancy were 11.05 times (95% CI=7.40, 16.48) more likely to also use ENDS prenatally. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics and cigarette use during pregnancy were consistent with the findings for ENDS.


      Pregnant women across the U.S. are using ENDS and cigarettes. Surveillance is essential to continue monitoring trends in prenatal use of tobacco products and understand the implications on pregnancy and infant outcomes.
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