Advertisement

Sugary Drink Consumption Among Children by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Status

Published:November 20, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.08.033

      Introduction

      The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program is the largest U.S. federally funded nutrition assistance program, providing food assistance to more than 40 million low-income Americans, half of whom are children. This paper examines trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among U.S. children and adolescents by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation status.

      Methods

      Dietary data from 15,645 participants (aged 2–19 years) were obtained from the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination surveys. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation was categorized as: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participant, income-eligible nonparticipant, lower income–ineligible nonparticipant, and higher income–ineligible nonparticipant. Survey-weighted logistic regressions estimated predicted probabilities of daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and negative binomial regressions estimated predicted per capita daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage calories. Data were analyzed in 2019.

      Results

      From 2003 to 2014, there were significant declines across all Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation categories for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (participants: 84.2% to 75.6%, p=0.009; income-eligible nonparticipants: 85.8% to 67.5%, p=0.004; lower income–ineligible nonparticipants: 84.3% to 70.6%, p=0.026; higher income–ineligible nonparticipants: 82.2% to 67.7%, p=0.001) and per capita daily sugar-sweetened beverage calories (participants: 267 to 182 kilocalories, p<0.001; income-eligible nonparticipants: 269 to 168 kilocalories, p<0.001; lower income–ineligible nonparticipants: 249 to 178 kilocalories, p=0.008; higher income–ineligible nonparticipants: 244 to 161 kilocalories, p<0.001). Per capita sports/energy drink consumption increased among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants (2 to 15 kilocalories, p=0.007).

      Conclusions

      Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has declined for children and adolescents in all Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation categories, but current levels remain high. There were fewer favorable trends over time for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage subtypes among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants relative to other participant categories.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service
        Supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP).
        Published 2018
        • Cunnyngham K
        Trends in supplemental nutrition assistance program participation rates: fiscal year 2010 to fiscal year 2016.
        Published 2018
        • U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service
        Characteristics of supplemental nutrition assistance program households: fiscal year 2017.
        Published 2019
        • Mabli J
        • Ohls J
        • Dragoset L
        • Castner L
        • Santos B
        Measuring the effect of supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP) participation on food security.
        Published 2013
        • Mabli J
        • Ohls J
        Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation is associated with an increase in household food security in a national evaluation.
        J Nutr. 2015; 145: 344-351
        • Leung CW
        • Ding EL
        • Catalano PJ
        • Villamor E
        • Rimm EB
        • Willett WC
        Dietary intake and dietary quality of low-income adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 96: 977-988
        • Long MW
        • Leung CW
        • Cheung LW
        • Blumenthal SJ
        • Willett WC
        Public support for policies to improve the nutritional impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).
        Public Health Nutr. 2014; 17: 219-224
        • Andreyeva T
        • Tripp AS
        • Schwartz MB
        Dietary quality of Americans by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation status: a systematic review.
        Am J Prev Med. 2015; 49: 594-604
        • Fang Zhang F
        • Liu J
        • Rehm CD
        • Wilde P
        • Mande JR
        • Mozaffarian D
        Trends and disparities in diet quality among U.S. adults by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation status.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2018; 1e180237
        • Leung CW
        • Blumenthal SJ
        • Hoffnagle EE
        • et al.
        Associations of food stamp participation with dietary quality and obesity in children.
        Pediatrics. 2013; 131: 463-472
        • Center for Science in the Public Interest
        CSPI letter to USDA re: SNAP.
        Published 2013
        • Bleich SN
        • Vercammen KA
        • Koma JW
        • Li Z
        Trends in beverage consumption among children and adults, 2003–2014.
        Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018; 26: 432-441
        • Mesirow MS
        • Welsh JA
        Changing beverage consumption patterns have resulted in fewer liquid calories in the diets of U.S. children: national Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2001–2010.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015; 115 (e4): 559-566
        • Welsh JA
        • Sharma AJ
        • Grellinger L
        • Vos MB
        Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 94: 726-734
        • Mendez MA
        • Miles DR
        • Poti JM
        • Sotres-Alvarez D
        • Popkin BM
        Persistent disparities over time in the distribution of sugar-sweetened beverage intake among children in the United States.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2019; 109: 79-89
        • Rehm CD
        • Matte TD
        • Van Wye G
        • Young C
        • Frieden TR
        Demographic and behavioral factors associated with daily sugar-sweetened soda consumption in New York City adults.
        J Urban Health. 2008; 85: 375-385
        • Dodd AH
        • Briefel R
        • Cabili C
        • Wilson A
        • Crepinsek MK
        Disparities in consumption of sugar-sweetened and other beverages by race/ethnicity and obesity status among United States schoolchildren.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2013; 45: 240-249
        • van Ansem WJ
        • van Lenthe FJ
        • Schrijvers CT
        • Rodenburg G
        • van de Mheen D
        Socio-economic inequalities in children's snack consumption and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: the contribution of home environmental factors.
        Br J Nutr. 2014; 112: 467-476
        • Bleich SN
        • Vine S
        • Wolfson JA
        American adults eligible for the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program consume more sugary beverages than ineligible adults.
        Prev Med. 2013; 57: 894-899
        • Andreyeva T
        • Luedicke J
        • Henderson KE
        • Tripp AS
        Grocery store beverage choices by participants in federal food assistance and nutrition programs.
        Am J Prev Med. 2012; 43: 411-418
        • Bleich SN
        • Vercammen KA
        The negative impact of sugar-sweetened beverages on children's health: an update of the literature.
        BMC Obes. 2018; 5: 6
        • French SA
        • Rydell SA
        • Mitchell NR
        • Michael Oakes JM
        • Elbel B
        • Harnack L
        Financial incentives and purchase restrictions in a food benefit program affect the types of foods and beverages purchased: results from a randomized trial.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017; 14: 127
        • Harnack L
        • Oakes JM
        • Elbel B
        • Beatty T
        • Rydell S
        • French S
        Effects of subsidies and prohibitions on nutrition in a food benefit program: a randomized clinical trial.
        JAMA Intern Med. 2016; 176: 1610-1618
        • Basu S
        • Seligman HK
        • Gardner C
        • Bhattacharya J
        Ending SNAP subsidies for sugar-sweetened beverages could reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2014; 33: 1032-1039
        • Basu S
        • Seligman H
        • Bhattacharya J
        Nutritional policy changes in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: a microsimulation and cost-effectiveness analysis.
        Med Decis Mak. 2013; 33: 937-948
        • National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; 2013–2014
        Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies: Dietary Interview - Individual Foods, First Day (DR1IFF_H).
        Published 2016
      1. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies Documentation and Databases.www.ars.usda.gov/northeast-area/beltsville-md-bhnrc/beltsville-human-nutrition-research-center/food-surveys-research-group/docs/fndds-download-databases/. Updated June 13, 2019. Accessed August 23, 2019.

      2. National Cancer Institute. Dietary Assessment Primer. Summary Tables: recommendations on Potential Approaches to Dietary Assessment for Different Research Objectives Requiring Group-level Estimates. https://dietassessmentprimer.cancer.gov/approach/table.html. Accessed August 23, 2019.

        • Vercammen KA
        • Koma JW
        • Bleich SN
        Trends in energy drink consumption among U.S. adolescents and adults, 2003–2016.
        Am J Prev Med. 2019; 56: 827-833
        • Al-Shaar L
        • Vercammen K
        • Lu C
        • Richardson S
        • Tamez M
        • Mattei J
        Health effects and public health concerns of energy drink consumption in the United States: a mini-review.
        Front Public Health. 2017; 5: 225
        • U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service
        Final rule: child nutrition program flexibilities for milk, whole grains, and sodium requirements.
        Published 2018
        www.fns.usda.gov/school-meals/fr-121218
        Date accessed: August 23, 2019
        • Vercammen KA
        • Frelier JM
        • Lowery CM
        • McGlone ME
        • Ebbeling CB
        • Bleich SN
        A systematic review of strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among 0-year to 5-year olds.
        Obes Rev. 2018; 19: 1504-1524
        • Vargas-Garcia EJ
        • Evans CEL
        • Prestwich A
        • Sykes-Muskett BJ
        • Hooson J
        • Cade JE
        Interventions to reduce consumption of sugar‐sweetened beverages or increase water intake: evidence from a systematic review and meta‐analysis.
        Obes Rev. 2017; 18: 1350-1363
        • Condon E
        • Drilea S
        • Lichtenstein C
        • Mabli J
        • Madden E
        • Niland K
        Diet quality of American school children by National School Lunch Program participation status: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010.
        Published 2015
        • Munsell CR
        • Harris JL
        • Sarda V
        • Schwartz MB
        Parents’ beliefs about the healthfulness of sugary drink options: opportunities to address misperceptions.
        Public Health Nutr. 2016; 19: 46-54
      3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service. Waiver Database. www.fns.usda.gov/snap/waivers/rules. Published 2014. Accessed August 23, 2019.

        • Baxter SD
        • Hitchcock DB
        • Guinn CH
        • et al.
        A validation study concerning the effects of interview content, retention interval, and grade on children's recall accuracy for dietary intake and/or physical activity.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014; 114: 1902-1914
        • Fox LE
        • Heggeness ML
        • Stevens K
        Precision in measurement: using SNAP administrative records to evaluate poverty measurement.
        in: Paper presented at: Population Association of America 2018 Annual Meeting, Denver, COApril 26–28, 2018 (Accessed XXXX.)
        • Raper N
        • Perloff B
        • Ingwersen L
        • Steinfeldt L
        • Anand J
        An overview of USDA's dietary intake data system.
        J Food Compost Anal. 2004; 17: 545-555
        • Moshfegh AJ
        • Rhodes DG
        • Baer DJ
        • et al.
        The US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method reduces bias in the collection of energy intakes.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88: 324-332
        • McPherson RS
        • Hoelscher DM
        • Alexander M
        • Scanlon KS
        • Serdula MK
        Dietary assessment methods among school-aged children: validity and reliability.
        Prev Med. 2000; 31: S11-S33
        • Bleich SN
        • Wang YC
        • Wang Y
        • Gortmaker SL
        Increasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. adults: 1988–1994 to 1999–2004.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89: 372-381