Hepatitis B Birth Dose Effects on Childhood Immunization in the U.S.


      The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends administering the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth, making it the first vaccine that many children receive. However, few studies examine whether children who miss the birth dose are at increased risk of vaccination delay. This study investigates birth dose as a determinant of up-to-date immunization status at age 18 months, considering 7 core childhood vaccine series: diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis; polio; measles, mumps, and rubella; Haemophilus influenzae type B; varicella; hepatitis B; and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.


      Cross-sectional data were collected in 2017 by National Immunization Survey-Child, a nationally representative survey of children aged 19–35 months living in the U.S., and were analyzed in 2019. The primary outcome was combined 7-vaccine series (4:3:1:3:3:1:4) up-to-date status at 18 months. Doubly robust estimates of association were calculated using survey logistic regression and propensity scores estimated with boosted classification and regression trees.


      Children who received the birth dose had 2.01 (95% CI=1.74, 2.33) times the odds of being up-to-date on the combined 7-vaccine series as children who did not. ORs for all the 7 individual vaccine series were positive, ranging from 1.59 (95% CI=1.28, 1.97) for measles, mumps, and rubella to 4.97 (95% CI=3.97, 6.24) for hepatitis B.


      Receiving the birth dose is positively associated with up-to-date status later in childhood, highlighting the importance of starting vaccination early. The association is insensitive to confounding by factors observed in National Immunization Survey-Child, but investigation of unobserved factors such as vaccine hesitancy could provide critical information to guide intervention strategy.
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