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Lifecourse Drinking Patterns, Hypertension, and Heart Problems Among U.S. Adults

Published:January 08, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.10.018

      Introduction

      Understanding the role of alcohol in hypertension and heart problems requires a lifecourse perspective accounting for drinking patterns before onset of health problems that distinguishes between lifetime abstinence and former drinking, prior versus current drinking, and overall alcohol consumption in conjunction with heavy episodic drinking. Using prospective data among U.S. adults aged 21–55 years, this study accounts for these lifecourse factors to investigate the effect of alcohol on hypertension and heart problems.

      Methods

      Data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, aged 14–21 years in 1979 and followed through 2012 (n=8,289), were analyzed in 2017–18 to estimate hypertension and heart problems onset from lifecourse drinking patterns. Discrete-time survival models stratified by sex and race/ethnicity, controlling for demographics and time-varying factors of employment, smoking, and obesity.

      Results

      Elevated risks for hypertension were found for women drinking >14 drinks/week regardless of any heavy drinking (AOR=1.57, p=0.023) and for men engaged in risky drinking (15–28 drinks/week) together with monthly heavy drinking (AOR=1.64, p=0.016). Having a history of weekly heavy drinking elevated the risk for women but not for men. No significant relationship was evident for alcohol and heart problems onset.

      Conclusions

      This study confirms previous findings of increased hypertension risk from higher volume and heavier drinking patterns among women and men but did not find any support for increased heart problems risk, which may be due to the younger age profile of the sample. Further research that incorporates lifecourse drinking patterns is needed to better understand the alcohol–health relationship.
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