Advertisement

Current and 1-Year Psychological and Physical Effects of Replacing Sedentary Time With Time in Other Behaviors

      Introduction

      Sedentary time is inversely associated with health. Capturing 24 hours of behavior (i.e., sleep, sedentary, light physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) is necessary to understand behavior–health associations.

      Methods

      Healthy young adults aged 20–35 years (n=423) completed the Profile of Mood States, the Perceived Stress Scale, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric measures at baseline and 12 months. Time spent sedentary (total, in prolonged [>30 minutes] and short [≤30 minutes] bouts), in light physical activity (1.5–3.0 METs), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (>3.0 METs), and asleep, were assessed through SenseWear armband worn 24 hours/day for 10 days at baseline. Isotemporal substitution modeling evaluated cross-sectional and longitudinal psychological and physical health associations of substituting sedentary time with sleep, light physical activity, or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Data were collected from 2010 to 2015 and analyzed in 2019.

      Results

      Cross-sectional analyses revealed substituting prolonged sedentary time for sleep was associated with lower stress (standardized β= −0.11), better mood (−0.12), and lower BMI (−0.10). Substituting total or prolonged sedentary for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with lower body fat percentage (total, −0.22; prolonged, −0.23) and BMI (−0.40; −0.42). Higher BMI was associated with substituting total or prolonged sedentary for light physical activity (0.15; 0.17); lower BMI with substituting prolonged sedentary for short bouts (−0.09). Prospective analyses indicated substituting total or prolonged sedentary with light physical activity was associated with improved mood (−0.16; −0.14) and lower BMI (−0.15; −0.16); substituting with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with improved mood (−0.15; −0.15).

      Conclusions

      Short- and long-term psychological benefits may result from transitioning sedentary time to light physical activity or sleep, whereas increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity may be required to influence physical health.

      Trial registration

      This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01746186.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • Tremblay MS
        • Aubert S
        • Barnes JD
        • et al.
        Sedentary Behavior Research Network (SBRN) - Terminology Consensus Project process and outcome.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017; 14: 75https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0525-8
        • Healy GN
        • Matthews CE
        • Dunstan DW
        • Winkler EA
        • Owen N
        Sedentary time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in U.S. adults: NHANES 2003-06.
        Eur Heart J. 2011; 32: 590-597https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq451
        • Diaz KM
        • Howard VJ
        • Hutto B
        • et al.
        Patterns of sedentary behavior in U.S. middle-age and older adults: the REGARDS Study.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016; 48: 430-438https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000792
        • Chau JY
        • Merom D
        • Grunseit A
        • Rissel C
        • Bauman AE
        • van der Ploeg HP
        Temporal trends in non-occupational sedentary behaviours from Australian Time Use Surveys 1992, 1997 and 2006.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012; 9: 76https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-76
        • Biswas A
        • Oh PI
        • Faulkner GE
        • et al.
        Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Ann Intern Med. 2015; 162: 123-132https://doi.org/10.7326/M14-1651
        • Dunstan DW
        • Thorp AA
        • Healy GN
        Prolonged sitting: is it a distinct coronary heart disease risk factor?.
        Curr Opin Cardiol. 2011; 26: 412-419https://doi.org/10.1097/HCO.0b013e3283496605
        • Honda T
        • Chen S
        • Yonemoto K
        • et al.
        Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study.
        BMC Public Health. 2016; 16: 888https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3570-3
        • Mailey EL
        • Rosenkranz SK
        • Casey K
        • Swank A
        Comparing the effects of two different break strategies on occupational sedentary behavior in a real world setting: a randomized trial.
        Prev Med Rep. 2016; 4: 423-428https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.08.010
        • Teychenne M
        • Ball K
        • Salmon J
        Sedentary behavior and depression among adults: a review.
        Int J Behav Med. 2010; 17: 246-254https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-010-9075-z
        • Teychenne M
        • Costigan SA
        • Parker K
        The association between sedentary behaviour and risk of anxiety: a systematic review.
        BMC Public Health. 2015; 15: 513https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1843-x
        • Mouchacca J
        • Abbott GR
        • Ball K
        Associations between psychological stress, eating, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and body weight among women: a longitudinal study.
        BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 828https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-828
        • Mekary RA
        • Willett WC
        • Hu FB
        • Ding EL
        Isotemporal substitution paradigm for physical activity epidemiology and weight change.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 170: 519-527https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp163
        • Grgic J
        • Dumuid D
        • Bengoechea EG
        • et al.
        Health outcomes associated with reallocations of time between sleep, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity: a systematic scoping review of isotemporal substitution studies.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018; 15: 69https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0691-3
        • Mekary RA
        • Lucas M
        • Pan A
        • et al.
        Isotemporal substitution analysis for physical activity, television watching, and risk of depression.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2013; 178: 474-483https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kws590
        • Stamatakis E
        • Rogers K
        • Ding D
        • et al.
        All-cause mortality effects of replacing sedentary time with physical activity and sleeping using an isotemporal substitution model: a prospective study of 201,129 mid-aged and older adults.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015; 12: 121https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-015-0280-7
        • Ekblom-Bak E
        • Ekblom Ö
        • Bergström G
        • Börjesson M
        Isotemporal substitution of sedentary time by physical activity of different intensities and bout lengths, and its associations with metabolic risk.
        Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016; 23: 967-974https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487315619734
        • Hand GA
        • Shook RP
        • Paluch AE
        • et al.
        The Energy Balance Study: the design and baseline results for a longitudinal study of energy balance.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2013; 84: 275-286https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2013.816224
        • Diaz KM
        • Howard VJ
        • Hutto B
        • et al.
        Patterns of sedentary behavior and mortality in U.S. middle-aged and older adults: a national cohort study.
        Ann Intern Med. 2017; 167: 465-475https://doi.org/10.7326/M17-0212
        • St-Onge M
        • Mignault D
        • Allison DB
        • Rabasa-Lhoret R
        Evaluation of a portable device to measure daily energy expenditure in free-living adults.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85: 742-749https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/85.3.742
        • Reece JD
        • Barry V
        • Fuller DK
        • Caputo J
        Validation of the SenseWear armband as a measure of sedentary behavior and light activity.
        J Phys Act Health. 2015; 12: 1229-1237https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2014-0136
        • Calabró MA
        • Lee JM
        • Saint-Maurice PF
        • Yoo H
        • Welk GJ
        Validity of physical activity monitors for assessing lower intensity activity in adults.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014; 11: 119https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-014-0119-7
        • Berntsen S
        • Hageberg R
        • Aandstad A
        • et al.
        Validity of physical activity monitors in adults participating in free-living activities.
        Br J Sports Med. 2010; 44: 657-664https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.048868
        • Ainsworth BE
        • Haskell WL
        • Herrmann SD
        • et al.
        2011 Compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 1575-1581https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821ece12
        • Shin M
        • Swan P
        • Chow CM
        The validity of Actiwatch2 and SenseWear armband compared against polysomnography at different ambient temperature conditions.
        Sleep Sci. 2015; 8: 9-15https://doi.org/10.1016/j.slsci.2015.02.003
        • Wirth MD
        • Hébert JR
        • Hand GA
        • et al.
        Association between actigraphic sleep metrics and body composition.
        Ann Epidemiol. 2015; 25: 773-778https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.05.001
        • Lee JM
        • Byun W
        • Keill A
        • Dinkel D
        • Seo Y
        Comparison of wearable trackers’ ability to estimate sleep.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018; 15: 1265https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061265
        • McNair DM
        • Lorr M
        • Droppleman LF
        EITS Manual for the Profile of Mood States.
        Educational and Industrial Testing Service (EITS), San Diego, CA1971
        • Nyenhuis DL
        • Yamamoto C
        • Luchetta T
        • Terrien A
        • Parmentier A
        Adult and geriatric normative data and validation of the profile of mood states.
        J Clin Psychol. 1999; 55: 79-86
        • Cohen S
        • Kamarck T
        • Mermelstein R
        A global measure of perceived stress.
        J Health Soc Behav. 1983; 24: 385-396https://doi.org/10.2307/2136404
        • Lee EH
        Review of the psychometric evidence of the perceived stress scale.
        Asian Nurs Res. 2012; 6: 121-127https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anr.2012.08.004
        • Chekroud SR
        • Gueorguieva R
        • Zheutlin AB
        • et al.
        Association between physical exercise and mental health in 1•2 million individuals in the USA between 2011 and 2015: a cross-sectional study.
        Lancet Psychiatry. 2018; 5: 739-746https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30227-X
        • Rethorst CD
        • Moncrieft AE
        • Gellman MD
        • et al.
        Isotemporal analysis of the association of objectively measured physical activity with depressive symptoms: results from Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).
        J Phys Act Health. 2017; 14: 733-739https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2016-0648
        • Yasunaga A
        • Shibata A
        • Ishii K
        • Koohsari MJ
        • Oka K
        Cross-sectional associations of sedentary behaviour and physical activity on depression in Japanese older adults: an isotemporal substitution approach.
        BMJ Open. 2018; 8e022282https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022282
        • Cliff DP
        • Jones RA
        • Burrows TL
        • et al.
        Volumes and bouts of sedentary behavior and physical activity: associations with cardiometabolic health in obese children.
        Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014; 22: E112-E118https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20698
        • Bonn SE
        • Rimm EB
        • Matthews CE
        • et al.
        Associations of sedentary time with energy expenditure and anthropometric measures.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018; 50: 2575-2583https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001729
        • Peddie MC
        • Bone JL
        • Rehrer NJ
        • Skeaff CM
        • Gray AR
        • Perry TL
        Breaking prolonged sitting reduces postprandial glycemia in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomized crossover trial.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 98: 358-366https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.051763
        • Hallgren M
        • Owen N
        • Stubbs B
        • et al.
        Passive and mentally-active sedentary behaviors and incident major depressive disorder: a 13-year cohort study.
        J Affect Disord. 2018; 241: 579-585https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.020
      1. Hallgren M, Nguyen TT, Owen N, et al. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships of passive and mentally active sedentary behaviours and physical activity with depression. Br J Psychiatry. In press. Online March 21, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2019.60.

        • Hallgren M
        • Dunstan DW
        • Owen N
        Passive versus mentally active sedentary behaviors and depression.
        Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2020; 48: 20-27https://doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000211
        • Wellburn S
        • Ryan CG
        • Azevedo LB
        • et al.
        Displacing sedentary time: association with cardiovascular disease prevalence.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016; 48: 641-647https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000816
        • Buman MP
        • Winkler EA
        • Kurka JM
        • et al.
        Reallocating time to sleep, sedentary behaviors, or active behaviors: associations with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers, NHANES 2005-2006.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 179: 323-334https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwt292
        • Patel SR
        • Hu FB
        Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review.
        Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008; 16: 643-653https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.118
        • Krueger PM
        • Friedman EM
        Sleep duration in the United States: a cross-sectional population-based study.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 169: 1052-1063https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp023
        • Breslau N
        • Roth T
        • Rosenthal L
        • Andreski P
        Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1996; 39: 411-418https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(95)00188-3
        • Keadle SK
        • Conroy DE
        • Buman MP
        • Dunstan DW
        • Matthews CE
        Targeting reductions in sitting time to increase physical activity and improve health.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017; 49: 1572-1582https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001257
        • Dempsey PC
        • Hadgraft NT
        • Winkler EAH
        • et al.
        Associations of context-specific sitting time with markers of cardiometabolic risk in Australian adults.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018; 15: 114https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0748-3