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Prevalence of Nonpharmacologic and Pharmacologic Therapies Among Noncancer Chronic Pain–Associated Ambulatory Care Visits, 2016

      Approximately 20% of U.S. adults reported chronic pain in 2016.
      • Dahlhamer J
      • Lucas J
      • Zelaya C
      • et al.
      Prevalence of chronic pain and high-impact chronic pain among adults—United States, 2016.
      Opioids are often prescribed for chronic pain, but evidence suggests that benefits may be limited and harms may include addiction, overdose, and death.
      • Busse JW
      • Wang L
      • Kamaleldin M
      • et al.
      Opioids for chronic noncancer pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      ,
      • Dowell D
      • Haegerich TM
      • Chou R
      CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain–United States, 2016.
      The 2016 CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain (CDC Guideline) recommends nonpharmacologic and nonopioid pharmacologic therapies as preferred therapies for chronic pain.
      • Dowell D
      • Haegerich TM
      • Chou R
      CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain–United States, 2016.
      Prior research has examined opioid and nonopioid pharmacologic therapies
      • Miller GF
      • Guy GP
      • Zhang K
      • Mikosz CA
      • Xu L
      Prevalence of nonopioid and opioid prescriptions among commercially insured patients with chronic pain.
      ; little is known about how nonpharmacologic therapies are utilized for chronic pain. This study examines the prevalence of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic (opioid and nonopioid) therapies among ambulatory care visits with a noncancer chronic pain–associated primary diagnosis.
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