National Estimates of ENDS Liquid Nicotine Exposures, U.S., 2013–2017


      Increased use of ENDS in the U.S. is related to acute adverse events from liquid nicotine exposure. This paper provides national estimates of U.S. hospital emergency department visits for exposures from liquid nicotine exposure in individuals aged ≥5 years.


      In 2018–2019, data from the 2013–2017 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program were used to identify cases of liquid nicotine–related exposures in individuals aged ≥5 years. National estimates of exposures related to liquid nicotine exposure in ENDS for those aged ≥5 years by demographic characteristics, symptoms, diagnoses, and treatment dispositions were calculated.


      From 2013 to 2017, an estimated 2,718 cases related to liquid nicotine among those aged ≥5 years were treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments. Most exposures occurred among those who were aged ≥25 years (51.7%), white (74.1%), and male (51.9%). Most case patients were treated and released from the hospitals, and 7.5% were admitted. Poisoning was the most common diagnosis of these exposures (82.7%). The most common symptoms were cardiovascular (29.7%).


      This study provides national estimates of emergency department visits for injury and poisoning cases related to nicotine exposure from ENDS among individuals aged ≥5 years. Although long-term health outcome studies of liquid nicotine exposure are not available, these estimates provide some insight into the acute health effects. Findings from this study may inform education programs aimed at preventing exposures related to ENDS products.
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