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Group Lifestyle Balance Adapted for Individuals With Impaired Mobility: Outcomes for 6-Month RCT and Combined Groups at 12 Months

Published:November 04, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.06.023

      Introduction

      This study examines the feasibility and effectiveness of an intensive lifestyle intervention adapted for people with impaired mobility.

      Study design

      This was a randomized, wait-list controlled trial. The experimental group immediately received the 12-month weight loss program; the wait-list control group received it after a 6-month delay. Between-group comparisons were conducted for the 6-month RCT study design. Repeated measures were conducted for both groups combined after receiving the 12-month intervention. Data were collected August 2015–February 2017 and analyzed in 2017.

      Setting/participants

      A community-based sample received 23, group-based sessions via a mix of telephone and in-person sessions in a hospital-based setting. Participants with impaired mobility (n=66) were middle-aged (49.80 [SD=11.37] years), mostly White (66.7%), female (66.7%), and most commonly had spinal cord injury (47.0%).

      Intervention

      The 12-month intervention delivered 23 group-based sessions that promoted weight loss through reducing caloric intake and increasing physical activity.

      Main outcome measures

      Primary outcomes were effectiveness measured as change in weight and time spent in moderate physical activity. Feasibility was assessed in 12-month combined group analyses, measured as retention, attendance, and dietary self-monitoring.

      Results

      The 6-month RCT results showed that the immediate and delayed groups differed significantly (p<0.05) in weight (−1.66 [SD=4.42] kg loss vs 0.05 [SD=4.15] kg gain) and moderate physical activity (52.93 [SD=90.74] minutes/week increase vs −14.22 [SD=96.02] minutes/week decrease), accounting for baseline weight, time with disability, and age of onset. The 12-month results with groups combined demonstrated 74.2% retention and 77.7% core session attendance. Self-monitoring was higher in the delayed group (77.3%), who used a smartphone app, than the immediate group (47.3%), who mostly used paper trackers. Participants achieved significant 12-month weight loss of 3.31 (SD=10.13) kg (d=0.33) in mixed modeling analyses with groups combined yet did not significantly increase moderate physical activity.

      Conclusions

      Group Lifestyle Balance Adapted for Individuals with Impaired Mobility is a feasible, effective approach to teach healthy lifestyle skills to individuals with mobility impairment, yielding modest weight loss and enhanced self-efficacy.

      Trial registration

      This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT03307187.
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