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- Contribution of walking to school to individual and population moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity: systematic review and meta-analysis.Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2016; 28: 353-363
- Health effects of transport-related air pollution; 2005.WHO Regional Office Europe, Copenhagen, DenmarkPublished 2005https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/74716/e86650sum.pdf?language=Russian#:∼:text=Observed%20health%20effects&text=A%20review%20of%20this%20evidence,allergic%20respiratory%20symptoms%20and%20diseaseDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- The environmental and population health benefits of active transport: a review.in: Liu G Greenhouse Gases–Emissions, Measurement and Management. InTechOpen, London, UK2012: 413-440
- Health impacts of the School Commute.UC: Safe Transportation Research & Education Center, Berkeley, CAPublished April 2008https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2g612244Date accessed: August 19, 2020
- Benefits of shift from car to active transport.Transp Policy. 2012; 19: 121-131
- Evaluating active transport benefits and costs: guide to valuing walking and cycling improvements and encouragement programs.Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, CanadaPublished June 5, 2020https://www.vtpi.org/nmt-tdm.pdfDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- Potential of active transport to improve health, reduce healthcare costs, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions: a modelling study.PLoS One. 2019; 14e0219316
1969 Nationwide personal transportation survey. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/1969/1969page.htm. Updated March 30, 2018. Accessed August 19, 2020.
The decline of walking and bicycling. SRTS guide.http://guide.saferoutesinfo.org/introduction/the_decline_of_walking_and_bicycling.cfm. Accessed August 19, 2020.
National household travel survey 2017. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.https://nhts.ornl.gov/. Accessed August 19, 2020.
- Travel and environmental implications of school siting.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCPublished October 2003https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-04/documents/school_travel.pdfDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- The impact of changes in state minimum acreage policies on school siting practices.J Plan Educ Res. 2014; 34: 169-179
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Barriers to children walking to or from school–United States, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005;54(38):949–952. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5438a2.htm. Accessed February 24, 2020.
- The decline in active school transportation (AST): a systematic review of the factors related to AST and changes in school transport over time in North America.Prev Med. 2018; 111: 314-322
- Common ground: eight factors that influence walking and biking to school.Transp Policy. 2012; 24: 240-248
Physical activity: interventions to increase active travel to school. The Community Guide.https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/physical-activity-interventions-increase-active-travel-school. Updated September 17, 2020. Accessed September 17, 2020.
World Bank country and lending groups. The World Bank.https://data.worldbank.org/about/country-and-lending-groups. Accessed August 19, 2020.
The basics of safe routes to school. Safe Routes Partnership.https://www.saferoutespartnership.org/safe-routes-school/srts-program/basics. Accessed August 19, 2020.
Economic reviews. The community Guide. https://www.thecommunityguide.org/about/economic-reviews. Updated August 28, 2019. Accessed August 19, 2020.
Databases, tables & calculators by subject: CPI for all urban consumers (CPI-U). Bureau of Labor Statistics.https://data.bls.gov/timeseries/CUUR0000SA0?output_view=pct_1mth. Accessed August 19, 2020.
Purchasing Power Parities. PPP conversion factor, private consumption (LCU per international $). The World Bank.https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/PA.NUS.PRVT.PP. Accessed August 19, 2020.
- A systematic review of interventions for promoting active transportation to school.Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011; 8: 10
Physical activity: interventions to increase active travel to school. The Community Guide.https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/physical-activity-interventions-increase-active-travel-school. Updated August 28, 2019. Accessed August 19, 2020.
- Claiming the health dividend: a summary and discussion of value for money estimates from studies of investment in walking and cycling.Department for Transport, London, United KingdomPublished November 2014https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/371096/claiming_the_health_dividend.pdfDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- Cost and health benefit of active transport in Queensland: stage two report evaluation framework and values.CATALYST for Health Promotion Queensland, Queensland, AustraliaPublished September 2011https://sensibletransport.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/QLD-Health-Stage-2-LR_V4.pdfDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- Cost-effectiveness of active transport for primary school children - Walking School Bus program.Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009; 6: 63
- Assessing cost-effectiveness in obesity: active transport program for primary school children–TravelSMART Schools Curriculum program.J Phys Act Health. 2011; 8: 503-515
- Moving forward: safe routes to school progress in five states.Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), University of Washington, Seattle, WAPublished July 2012http://depts.washington.edu/trac/bulkdisk/pdf/743.3.pdfDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- The cost-effectiveness of New York City's Safe Routes to School Program.Am J Public Health. 2014; 104: 1294-1299
- School travel planning benefit-cost report for Toronto & Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph.Ontario active school travel, Ontario, CanadaPublished February 2016https://ontarioactiveschooltravel.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Benefit-Cost-Final-Report-2016.pdfDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- Safe Routes to School safety and mobility analysis.UC: California Department of Transportation, University of California Traffic Safety Center, Berkeley, CAPublished 2007https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5455454cDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- Improving access for local journeys: linking communities 2012-13 programme-wide impacts.Sustrans, Department of Transport, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, EnglandPublished July 2014https://www.sustrans.org.uk/media/3690/3690.pdfDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- Safe Routes to School (SRTS) Statewide Mobility Assessment Study - Phase I Report.Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), University of Washington, Seattle, WAPublished January 2010https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/743.1.pdfDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- Multistate evaluation of safe routes to school programs.Am J Health Promot. 2014; 28: S89-S96
- Active School Travel Program: Evaluation and Assessment.Brisbane City Council, Brisbane, Australia2008
- Safe accountable, flexible, efficient transportation equity act: a legacy for users. A summary of highway provisions.U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DCPublished August 25, 2005https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safetealu/safetea-lu_summary.pdfDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- Making the economic case for active school travel.in: Waygood EOD Friman M Olsson LE Mitra R Transportation and Children's Well-Being. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands2020: 187-197
- Built environment interventions to increase active travel: a critical review and discussion.Curr Environ Health Rep. 2019; 6: 309-315
- Quantifying the health impacts of active travel: assessment of methodologies.Transp Rev. 2015; 35: 559-582
- Health impact assessment of active transportation: a systematic review.Prev Med. 2015; 76: 103-114
- The effect of infrastructural changes in the built environment on physical activity, active transportation and sedentary behavior - a systematic review.Health Place. 2018; 53: 135-149
- Policies to promote active travel: evidence from reviews of the literature.Curr Environ Health Rep. 2017; 4: 278-285
- Health economic assessment tool (HEAT) for walking and for cycling. Methods and user guide on physical activity, air pollution, injuries and carbon impact assessments.WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, DenmarkPublished 2017https://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/abstracts/health-economic-assessment-tool-heat-for-walking-and-for-cycling.-methods-and-user-guide-on-physical-activity,-air-pollution,-injuries-and-carbon-impact-assessments-2017Date accessed: August 19, 2020
- Cost and health benefit of active transport in Queensland: research and review, stage one report.CATALYST for Health Promotion Queensland, 2011https://sensibletransport.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/QLD-Health-Stage-1-Report-Full-10.09.11.compressed.pdfDate accessed: August 19, 2020
- School factors associated with the percentage of students who walk or bike to school, School Health Policies and Practices Study, 2014.Prev Chronic Dis. 2016; 13: E63
- Effectiveness of a safe routes to school program in preventing school-aged pedestrian injury.Pediatrics. 2013; 131: 290-296
- California's Safe Routes to School program: impacts on walking, bicycling, and pedestrian safety.J Am Plann Assoc. 2005; 71: 301-317
- Evaluation of the California Safe Routes to School legislation: urban form changes and children's active transportation to school.Am J Prev Med. 2005; 28: 134-140
Getting kids active: walk to school. The Victoria Health Promotion Foundation. https://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/programs-and-projects/walk-to-school. Updated May 11, 2020. Accessed August 19, 2020.
- Pedestrian and pedalcyclist injury costs in the United States by age and injury severity.Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med. 2004; 48: 265-284
WISQARS™—Web-based injury statistics query and reporting system. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. Updated July 1, 2020. Accessed August 19, 2020.
Transport analysis guidance. Department for Transport. https://www.gov.uk/transport-analysis-guidance-webtag. Updated October 22, 2019. Accessed August 19, 2020.
Names and affiliations of Community Preventive Services Task Force members are available at www.thecommunityguide.org/task-force/community-preventive-services-task-force-members.