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Association Between Restaurant Menu Item Descriptions and Their Nutrient Content

      Introduction

      Item descriptions on restaurant menus often include claims about health and other attributes, and these are much less regulated than the language on packaged food labels. This study tests whether menu items with claims have different nutritional content from items without claims.

      Methods

      Investigators compiled a data set of menu items, their claims, and their nutrition content using MenuStat. Data included 84,788 item-year observations at up to 96 of the top-selling restaurant chains from 2012 to 2018. Items were identified with general health, health-related ingredients, nutrient content, product sourcing, and vegan or vegetarian claims through a matching algorithm. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the effect of claims on calories, nutrients to limit (e.g., saturated fat and sodium), and other nutrients by dish types (sides, main dishes, desserts).

      Results

      Most dishes with claims were lower in calories; however, items with claims were not consistently lower in other nutrients to limit (sodium, saturated fat, sugar, or trans fat). Vegan or vegetarian desserts had 128 mg (95% CI=20.9, 235.1) more sodium than desserts without this claim. Main and side dishes with claims had equivalent or higher sugar content than items without claims. Many items with claims were lower in saturated fat, especially main dishes with a nutrient content claim (−2.8 percentage points, 95% CI= −3.4, −2.2).

      Conclusions

      Items with claims were high in nutrients to limit. Additional efforts to increase transparency around excessive ingredients, such as the sodium warning labels, could be implemented by the restaurant industry.
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