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Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) fatal injury help menu. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/fatal_help/definitions_fatal.html. Updated May 8, 2018. Accessed April 14, 2020.
Recent violent crime trends in the United States (R45236). Congressional Research Service.https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/details?prodcode=R45236. Updated June 20, 2018. Accessed March 14, 2020.
- Deaths: final data for 2017.Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2019; 68 (Accessed May 13, 2020): 1-77
Violence info: homicide: WHO global health estimates (2015 update). WHO.https://apps.who.int/violence-info/homicide/. Updated 2017. Accessed April 14, 2020.
- Coping with grief responses among African American family members of homicide victims.Violence Vict. 2014; 29: 332-347
- Co-victims of homicide: a systematic review of the literature.Trauma Violence Abuse. 2015; 16: 494-505
- Prevalence and correlates of self-rated posttraumatic stress disorder and complicated grief in a community-based sample of homicidally bereaved individuals.J Interpers Violence. 2016; 31: 207-227
CDC WONDER: underlying cause of death 1999-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.https://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/help/ucd.html#. Updated May 19, 2020. Accessed July 22, 2020.
- Race, law, and health disparities: toward a critical race intervention.Annu Rev Law Soc Sci. 2017; 13: 313-329
- Mortality among black men in the USA.J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018; 5: 50-61
- Violence-related disparities experienced by black youth and young adults: opportunities for prevention.Am J Prev Med. 2018; 55: 462-469
- Disparities in firearm injury: consequences of structural violence.Curr Trauma Rep. 2020; 6: 10-22
- The role of racial residential segregation in black-white disparities in firearm homicide at the state level in the United States, 1991‒2015.J Natl Med Assoc. 2019; 111: 62-75
- The relationship between structural racism and black–white disparities in fatal police shootings at the state level.J Natl Med Assoc. 2018; 110: 106-116
- A social scientific approach toward understanding racial disparities in police shooting: data from the Department of Justice (1980-2000).J Soc Issues. 2017; 73: 701-722
- Race, place, and police-caused homicide in U.S. municipalities.Justice Q. 2019; 36: 751-786
- Structural covariates of homicide rates: are there any invariances across time and social space?.Am J Sociol. 1990; 95: 922-963
- An empirical assessment of what we know about structural covariates of homicide rates: a return to a classic 20 years later.Homicide Stud. 2010; 14: 219-243
U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division. 2018 Crime in the United States: expanded homicide data. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division.https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2018/crime-in-the-u.s.-2018/topic-pages/expanded-homicide. Published 2019. Accessed April 14, 2020.
- Was there a Ferguson effect on crime rates in large U.S. cities?.J Crim Justice. 2016; 46: 1-8
- Comparison of rates of firearm and nonfirearm homicide and suicide in black and white non-Hispanic men, by U.S. state.Ann Intern Med. 2018; 168: 712-720
- Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2012-2013 and 2015-2016.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018; 67: 1233-1237
- A tale of two cities: persistently high homicide rates in Baltimore City compared with significant declines in New York City.Am J Med. 2019; 132: 3-5
- American crime drops: investigating the breaks, dips and drops in temporal homicide.Soc Sci Res. 2017; 64: 154-170
Big Cities Health Coalition. Data platform.https://www.bigcitieshealth.org/city-data. Accessed April 14, 2020.
NYU Langone Health. City Health Dashboard: empowering cities to create thriving communities. https://www.cityhealthdashboard.com/. Accessed April 14, 2020.
Healthy People 2020: About healthy people. HealthyPeople.gov, HHS, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/About-Healthy-People. Accessed April 14, 2020.
- The racial disparity in breast cancer mortality in the 25 largest cities in the United States.Cancer Epidemiol. 2012; 36: e147-e151
- Changes in the racial disparity in breast cancer mortality in the ten U.S. cities with the largest African American populations from 1999 to 2013: the reduction in breast cancer mortality disparity in Chicago.Cancer Causes Control. 2017; 28: 563-568
- Deaths: leading causes for 2017.Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2019; 68 (https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr68/nvsr68_06-508.pdf. Accessed April 7, 2020): 1-77
Healthy People 2020: IVP-29 reduce homicides. HealthyPeople.gov, HHS, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.https://www.healthypeople.gov/node/4764/data_details. Accessed September 4, 2020.
- Deaths: final data for 2003.Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2006; 54 (https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_13.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2020): 1-120
- Epidemiologic Research: Principles and Quantitative Methods.John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY1982
- Measuring progress in Healthy People 2010.Healthy People 2010 Stat Notes. 2004; : 1-16
- Homicide in the south: higher rates among whites and fewer racial disparities.South Med J. 2018; 111: 607-611
- Life and death in the American city: men's life expectancy in 25 major American cities from 1990 to 2015.Demography. 2019; 56: 2349-2375
- San Diego homicides drop sharply in past year but why?.The San Diego Union-Tribune. February 25, 2018;https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/public-safety/sd-me-murder-statistics-20180221-story.htmlDate accessed: October 7, 2020
- Preventing violence among high-risk youth and communities with economic, policy, and structural strategies.MMWR Suppl. 2016; 65: 57-60
- Effects of Baltimore's Safe Streets program on gun violence: a replication of Chicago's CeaseFire Program.J Urban Health. 2013; 90: 27-40
- Reducing gun violence: the Boston Gun Project's Operation Ceasefire.U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Washington DCPublished September 2001https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/188741.pdfDate accessed: August 8, 2020
- Community and the crime decline: the causal effect of local nonprofits on violent crime.Am Sociol Rev. 2017; 82: 1214-1240