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- E-cigarette use among youth and young adults: a report of the Surgeon General.HHS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, Atlanta, GAPublished 2016https://moqc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Surgeon-General-Report_Use-of-E-cigarettes-Among-Youth-and-Young-Adults-2016.pdfDate accessed: January 12, 2021
E-cigarettes. Tobacco tactics from the University of Bath. https://tobaccotactics.org/wiki/e-cigarettes/. Updated June 23, 2020. Accessed January 12, 2021.
- An economic analysis of the pre-deeming us market for nicotine vaping products.Tob Regul Sci. 2019; 5: 169-181https://doi.org/10.18001/trs.5.2.8
- Altria-Juul Labs deal: why did it occur and what does it mean for the U.S. nicotine delivery product market.Tob Control. 2020; 29: e171-e174https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055081
- Nicotine arms race: JUUL and the high-nicotine product market.Tob Control. 2019; 28: 623-628https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054796
- FDA's nicotine stain: Juul isn't only culprit in teen e-cigarette smoking epidemic.CNBC. September 22, 2018.;https://www.cnbc.com/2018/09/22/the-other-key-culprit-in-juuls-teen-e-cig-smoking-epidemic-the-fda.htmlDate accessed: January 12, 2021
- on new steps to address epidemic of youth e-cigarette use.U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD2018https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/statement-fda-commissioner-scott-gottlieb-md-new-steps-address-epidemic-youth-e-cigarette-use(Published September 11)Date accessed: January 12, 2021
Surgeon General's advisory on e-cigarette use among youth. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/surgeon-general-advisory/index.html. Updated April 9, 2019. Accessed January 12, 2021.
- Notes from the field: use of electronic cigarettes and any tobacco product among middle and high school students—United States, 2011-2018.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018; 67: 1276-1277https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6745a5
- Prevalence of vaping and smoking among adolescents in Canada, England, and the United States: repeat national cross sectional surveys [published correction appears in BMJ. 2020;370:m2579].BMJ. 2019; 365: l2219https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l2219
- Use of e-cigarettes and smoked tobacco in youth aged 14–15 years in New Zealand: findings from repeated cross-sectional studies (2014-19).Lancet Public Health. 2020; 5: e204-e212https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(19)30241-5
- Use of e-cigarettes among young people in Great Britain.Action on Smoking and Health, London, United KingdomPublished June 2019Accessed February 17, 2021)
- ASSAD 2017 statistics and trends: Australian secondary students’ use of tobacco, alcohol, over-the-counter drugs, and illicit substances.Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, AustraliaPublished December 2018Accessed January 12, 2021)
E-cigarette policy scan: country laws regulating e-cigarettes. Global tobacco control. https://globaltobaccocontrol.org/e-cigarette_policyscan. Updated May 18, 2020. Accessed January 12, 2021.
- Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation.Tob Control. 2014; 23: iii3-iii9https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051670
- Adolescents’ interest in trying flavoured e-cigarettes.Tob Control. 2016; 25: ii62-ii66https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053174
- The impact of flavour, device type and warning messages on youth preferences for electronic nicotine delivery systems: evidence from an online discrete choice experiment.Tob Control. 2018; 27: e152-e159https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053754
- Flavored e-cigarette use: characterizing youth, young adult, and adult users.Prev Med Rep. 2017; 5: 33-40https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.11.001
- Reasons for electronic cigarette use among middle and high school students - National Youth Tobacco Survey, United States, 2016.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018; 67: 196-200https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6706a5
- A public health crisis: electronic cigarettes, vape, and JUUL.Pediatrics. 2019; 143e20182741https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-2741
- E-cigarettes: a 1-way street to traditional smoking and nicotine addiction for youth.Pediatrics. 2018; 141e20172850https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-2850
- Harm and addiction perceptions of the JUUL e-cigarette among adolescents.Nicotine Tob Res. 2020; 22: 713-721https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntz183
- Associations between public e-cigarette use and tobacco-related social norms among youth.Tob Control. 2020; 29: 332-340https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054728
- Electronic cigarettes: the renormalisation of nicotine use.BMJ. 2016; 352: i425https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i425
- E-cigarette marketing and communication: how e-cigarette companies market e-cigarettes and the public engages with e-cigarette information.Nicotine Tob Res. 2019; 21: 14-24https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx284
- Public health consequences of e-cigarettes.The National Academies Press, Washington, DCPublished 2018Accessed January 12, 2021)
- Nicotine, carcinogen, and toxin exposure in long-term e-cigarette and nicotine replacement therapy users: a cross-sectional study.Ann Intern Med. 2017; 166: 390-400https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-1107
- E-cigarettes: Public Health England's evidence based confusion?.Lancet. 2015; 386: 1237-1238https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00133-6
- E-cigarettes: Public Health England's evidence-based confusion.Lancet. 2015; 386: 829https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(15)00042-2
- Smoke and vapor: exploring the terminology landscape among electronic cigarette users.Tob Regul Sci. 2016; 2: 204-213https://doi.org/10.18001/TRS.2.3.1
PROSPERO: international prospective register of systemic reviews. University of York, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/. Accessed January 12, 2021.
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Systematic reviews - research guide. Using PICO or PICo. Murdoch University. https://libguides.murdoch.edu.au/systematic/PICO. Updated January 23, 2021. Accessed January 12, 2021.
Perception. Cambridge dictionary. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/perception. Accessed January 12, 2021.
- Attitudes and perceptions.2005.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267362543_Attitudes_and_PerceptionsDate accessed: December 19, 2019
- How prior knowledge prepares perception: prestimulus oscillations carry perceptual expectations and influence early visual responses.Sci Rep. 2018; 8: 6606https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25093-5
Adolescent health in the South-East Asia region. WHO. https://www.who.int/southeastasia/health-topics/adolescent-health. Updated January, 2021. Accessed November 17, 2020.
Australian Government. National strategy for young Australians. Canberra, Australia. Australian Government.https://www.youthpolicy.org/national/Australia_2010_National_Youth_Strategy.pdf. Published 2010. Accessed January 12, 2021.
MeSH: adolescent. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68000293. Accessed January 12, 2021.
When can 1…? Youth Advocacy Centre. https://www.yac.net.au/when-can-i/. Accessed January 12, 2021.
What is the age of majority and how does it affect me? Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants.https://settlement.org/ontario/legal-services/human-rights/protecting-my-rights/what-is-the-age-of-majority-and-how-does-it-affect-me/#:∼:text=The%20age%20of%20majority%20is,may%20have%20different%20legal%20ages. Updated July 8, 2019. Accessed January 12, 2021.
Age of criminal responsibility. GOV UK. https://www.gov.uk/age-of-criminal-responsibility. Accessed January 12, 2021.
World Bank country and lending groups. The World Bank.https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups. Accessed January 12, 2021.
Languages spoken in each country of the world. Infoplease.https://www.infoplease.com/world/countries/languages-spoken-in-each-country-of-the-world. Accessed January 12, 2021.
World health ranking: country health profiles. World Life Expectancy. https://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/world-health-rankings. Accessed January 12, 2021.
Covidence. The Cochrane Collaboration.https://community.cochrane.org/help/tools-and-software/covidence. Accessed February 17, 2021.
- The Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools for use in JBI systematic reviews checklist for qualitative Research.Published 2017https://joannabriggs.org/sites/default/files/2019-05/JBI_Critical_Appraisal-Checklist_for_Qualitative_Research2017_0.pdfDate accessed: May 4, 2019
- Critical appraisal tools.Published 2018https://joannabriggs.org/critical-appraisal-toolsDate accessed: May 4, 2019
- Validity and reliability (credibility and dependability) in qualitative research and data analysis.Applied Thematic Analysis. SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA2012: 79-106https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483384436.n4
- Youth who use e-cigarettes regularly: a qualitative study of behavior, attitudes, and familial norms [published correction appears in Prev Med Rep. 2020;20:101282].Prev Med Rep. 2019; 13: 93-97https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.11.011
- Perceptions of the relative harm of cigarettes and e-cigarettes among U.S. youth.Am J Prev Med. 2014; 47 (suppl 1): S53-S60https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2014.04.016
- Perception of e-cigarette harm and its correlation with use among U.S. adolescents.Nicotine Tob Res. 2015; 17: 330-336https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntu156
- Electronic cigarette harm and benefit perceptions and use among youth.Am J Prev Med. 2018; 55: 361-367https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.043
- Tobacco product initiation is correlated with cross-product changes in tobacco harm perception and susceptibility: longitudinal analysis of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health youth cohort.Prev Med. 2018; 114: 72-78https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.06.008
- A randomized trial of the effect of e-cigarette TV advertisements on intentions to use e-cigarettes.Am J Prev Med. 2015; 49: 686-693https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.05.010
- A qualitative study of adolescent perceptions of electronic cigarettes and their marketing: implications for prevention and policy.Child Health Care. 2017; 46: 379-392https://doi.org/10.1080/02739615.2016.1227937
- A randomized trial of the effect of youth appealing e-cigarette advertising on susceptibility to use e-cigarettes among youth.Nicotine Tob Res. 2018; 20: 954-961https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx155
- Tobacco product harm perceptions and new use.Pediatrics. 2018; 142e20181505https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1505
- Adolescents’ understanding and use of nicotine in e-cigarettes.Addict Behav. 2018; 82: 109-113https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.02.015
- Adolescents’ use of basic, intermediate, and advanced device types for vaping.Nicotine Tob Res. 2019; 21: 55-62https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx279
- Measuring youth beliefs about the harms of e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco compared to cigarettes.Addict Behav. 2017; 70: 7-13https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.01.033
- The social norms and beliefs of teenage male electronic cigarette use.J Ethn Subst Abuse. 2013; 12: 300-307https://doi.org/10.1080/15332640.2013.819310
- Youth perception of harm and addictiveness of tobacco products: findings from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (Wave 1).Addict Behav. 2019; 92: 128-135https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.12.005
- Longitudinal study of e-cigarette use and onset of cigarette smoking among high school students in Hawaii.Tob Control. 2017; 26: 34-39https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052705
- Use and perceived risk of electronic cigarettes among North Carolina middle and high school students.N C Med J. 2017; 78: 7-13https://doi.org/10.18043/ncm.78.1.7
- Predictors of youth e-cigarette use susceptibility in a U.S. nationally representative sample.Addict Behav. 2018; 82: 79-85https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.02.026
- Halpern-Felsher B. Adolescents’ perceptions of health risks, social risks, and benefits differ across tobacco products.J Adolesc Health. 2016; 58: 558-566https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.01.012
- Teenage perceptions of electronic cigarettes in Scottish tobacco-education school interventions: co-production and innovative engagement through a pop-up radio project.Perspect Public Health. 2016; 136: 288-293https://doi.org/10.1177/1757913915612109
- Harm perceptions of electronic cigarettes and nicotine: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of young people in Great Britain.Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018; 192: 257-263https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.08.016
- E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers’ views.BMJ Open. 2016; 6e013271.https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013271
- ‘Maybe they should regulate them quite strictly until they know the true dangers’: a focus group study exploring UK adolescents’ views on e-cigarette regulation.Addiction. 2016; 111: 1637-1645https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13377
- Adolescents’ responses to the promotion and flavouring of e-cigarettes.Int J Public Health. 2016; 61: 215-224https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-015-0769-5
- Exploring attitudes of children 12-17 years of age toward electronic cigarettes.J Community Health. 2016; 41: 962-968https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-016-0178-6
- The irresponsible promotion of e-cigarettes and Swaptober.Lancet Respir Med. 2018; 6: e3-e4https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(17)30473-3
- The messages presented in electronic cigarette–related social media promotions and discussion: scoping review.J Med Internet Res. 2019; 21: e11953https://doi.org/10.2196/11953
- Cognitive risk factors of electronic and combustible cigarette use in adolescents.Addict Behav. 2018; 82: 182-188https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.03.006
- E-cigarettes, hookah pens and vapes: adolescent and young adult perceptions of electronic nicotine delivery systems.Nicotine Tob Res. 2016; 18: 2006-2012https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw095
- Electronic-cigarette smoking experience among adolescents.J Adolesc Health. 2011; 49: 542-546https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.08.001
- Teens’ social media usage is drastically increasing.Statista, New York, NYPublished October 9, 2018Accessed January 12, 2021)
- Prevalence and correlates of the belief that electronic cigarettes are a lot less harmful than conventional cigarettes under the different regulatory environments of Australia and the United Kingdom.Nicotine Tob Res. 2017; 19: 258-263https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw137
- Should electronic cigarettes be as freely available as tobacco? Yes.BMJ. 2013; 46: f3845https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f3845
- Attitudes towards potential new tobacco control regulations among U.S. adults.Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018; 15: 72https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010072
- E-cigarettes: implications for health promotion in the Asian Pacific region.Asia Pac J Public Health. 2018; 30: 321-327https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539518762855
- The e-cigarette social environment, e-cigarette use, and susceptibility to cigarette smoking.J Adolesc Health. 2016; 59: 75-80https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.03.019