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Pneumococcal Vaccination Mandates for Child Care: Impact of State Laws on Vaccination Coverage at 19–35 Months

      Introduction

      Vaccination mandates for elementary and middle school attendance have been shown to increase vaccination rates and decrease the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Fewer studies have evaluated similar requirements for child care attendance. This study provides robust, quasi-experimental estimates of the effect of state laws mandating the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for child care attendance on vaccination coverage among children aged 19–35 months.

      Methods

      Using provider-verified immunization histories from the 2001–2018 waves of the National Immunization Survey–Child and leveraging the staggered implementation of vaccination requirements across states, a generalized difference-in-differences approach was implemented to compare regression-adjusted changes in vaccination coverage among children in states with and without a child care mandate for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The dynamics of estimated treatment effects were analyzed using an event study analysis. All data analyses were conducted in 2019‒2020.

      Results

      State adoption of a child care mandate for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine increased the likelihood that resident children aged 19–35 months completed the 4-dose pneumococcal conjugate vaccine series by 3.12 percentage points (p<0.01). Statistically significant gains in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage were identified in the first year following policy implementation and were found to persist over a period of ≥7 years.

      Conclusions

      Results indicate that state adoption of a child care mandate for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine leads to an increase in the proportion of resident children aged 19–35 months who are up to date with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
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