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- Health care use and decision making among lower-income families in high-deductible health plans.Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170: 1918-1925https://doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2010.428
- Consumer-directed health care and the disadvantaged.Health Aff (Millwood). 2007; 26: 1315-1327https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.26.5.1315
- Consumer-directed health care: early evidence about effects on cost and quality.Health Aff (Millwood). 2006; 25: w516-w530https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.25.w516
- Skin in the game: how consumer-directed plans affect the cost and use of health care.RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CAPublished 2012https://doi.org/10.7249/rb9672
- Association between high-deductible health plans and disparities in access to care among cancer survivors.JAMA Netw Open. 2020; 3e208965https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8965
- High-deductible health plans reduce health care cost and utilization, including use of needed preventive services.Health Aff (Millwood). 2017; 36: 1762-1768https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0610
- Impact of high deductible health plans on cardiovascular medication adherence and health disparities.Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2018; 11e004632https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.118.004632
U.S. Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service, Health savings accounts and other tax-favored health plans, Published February 11, 2021; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service; Washington, DC https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p969.pdf, Accessed March 30, 2021.
- High-deductible health plan enrollment increased from 2006 to 2016, employer-funded accounts grew in largest firms.Health Aff (Millwood). 2018; 37: 1231-1237https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.0188
- The Kaiser Family Foundation: employer health benefits 2019 annual survey.The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, San Francisco, CAPublished 2019https://info.higginbotham.net/hubfs/Uploaded_Documents/HR%20News%20Worth%20Review/KFF%20Employer%20Health%20Benefits%20Annual%20Survey%202019.pdfDate accessed: March 19, 2021
- Cost-sharing for plans offered in the federal marketplace, 2014-2021.Kaiser Family Foundation, San Francisco, CAPublished January 15, 2021https://www.kff.org/slideshow/cost-sharing-for-plans-offered-in-the-federal-marketplace/Date accessed: March 24, 2021
- Delayed and forgone care for families with chronic conditions in high-deductible health plans.J Gen Intern Med. 2012; 27: 1105-1111https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-011-1970-8
- Health insurance deductibles and their associations with out-of-pocket spending and affordability barriers among U.S. adults with chronic conditions.JAMA Intern Med. 2017; 177: 433-436https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.8419
- Financial burden of employer-sponsored high-deductible health plans for low-income adults with chronic health conditions.JAMA Intern Med. 2018; 178: 1706-1708https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.4706
- Effect of high-deductible insurance on high-acuity outcomes in diabetes: a Natural Experiment for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) Study.Diabetes Care. 2018; 41: 940-948https://doi.org/10.2337/dc17-1183
- How engaged are consumers in their health and health care, and why does it matter?.Res Brief. 2008; 8: 1-9https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18946947/Date accessed: May 5, 2021
- Health insurance challenges in the post-Affordable Care Act (ACA) era: a qualitative study of the perspective of low-income people of color in metropolitan Detroit.J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018; 5: 78-85https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-017-0344-2
- Health savings accounts and high-deductible health insurance plans: implications for those with high medical costs, low incomes, and the uninsured.Urban Institute, Washington, DCPublished February 3, 2009http://webarchive.urban.org/publications/411833.htmlDate accessed: March 19, 2021
Norris L. What is the difference between a medical FSA and an HSA? Healthinsurance.org. https://www.healthinsurance.org/faqs/what-is-the-difference-between-a-medical-fsa-and-an-hsa/. Accessed March 30, 2021.
- The Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research & Educational Trust: employer health benefits 2016 annual survey.The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, San Francisco, CAPublished 2017Accessed May 20, 2020)
- Health savings accounts and health care spending.Health Serv Res. 2010; 45: 1041-1060https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2010.01124.x
- Racial/ethnic and income-based disparities in health savings account participation among privately insured adults: study examines racial.Health Aff (Millwood). 2020; 39: 1917-1925https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00222
- Wealth inequality among immigrants: consistent racial/ethnic inequality in the United States.Popul Res Policy Rev. 2016; 35: 147-175https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-016-9385-1
- Children, Race/ethnicity, and marital wealth accumulation in Black and Hispanic households.J Comp Fam Stud. 2011; 42: 145-169https://doi.org/10.3138/jcfs.42.2.145
- Structural racism and health inequities: old issues, new directions.Du Bois Rev. 2011; 8: 115-132https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742058X11000130
- Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions.Lancet. 2017; 389: 1453-1463https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30569-X
- Systemic racism and U.S. health care.Soc Sci Med. 2014; 103: 7-14https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.09.006
About the National Health Interview Survey. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/about_nhis.htm. Updated September 16, 2020. Accessed March 19, 2021.
- Design and estimation for the national health interview survey, 2006-2015.Vital Health Stat 2. 2014; : 1-53https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24775908/Date accessed: May 5, 2021
- 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) public use data release. National Health Interview Survey: survey description.National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MDPublished June 2016https://nhis.ipums.org/nhis/resources/srvydesc2015.pdfDate accessed: May 20, 2021
- COPD surveillance–United States, 1999-2011.Chest. 2013; 144: 284-305https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.13-0809
Federal poverty level (FPL). U.S. Department of Medicaid & Medicare Services. https://www.healthcare.gov/glossary/federal-poverty-level-fpl/. Updated 2020. Accessed June 1, 2020.
- Inequality in quality: addressing socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities in health care.JAMA. 2000; 283: 2579-2584https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.283.19.2579
- Use of health savings accounts among U.S. adults enrolled in high-deductible health plans.JAMA Netw Open. 2020; 3e2011014https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.11014
- State Medicaid lessons for federal health reform.HealthAffairs, Bethesda, MDPublished June 7, 2017https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20170607.060481/full/Date accessed: March 24, 2021
- Developing and implementing health savings accounts in Medicaid: lessons from pioneering states.Department of Health Policy, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TNPublished June 2017https://www.vumc.org/health-policy/sites/vumc.org.health-policy/files/public_files/Health%20Savings%20Accounts%20in%20Medicaid.pdfDate accessed: March 24, 2021
- Coronavirus disease 2019 case surveillance - United States, January 22–May 30, 2020.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020; 69: 759-765https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6924e2
- Financial and health impacts of COVID-19 vary widely by race and ethnicity.Pew Research Center, Washington, DCPublished May 5, 2020https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/05/05/financial-and-health-impacts-of-covid-19-vary-widely-by-race-and-ethnicity/Date accessed: June 26, 2020
- Financial risk for COVID-19–like respiratory hospitalizations in consumer-directed health plans.Am J Prev Med. 2020; 59: 445-448https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.05.008
- Assessing Americans’ familiarity with health insurance terms and concepts.The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, San Francisco, CAPublished November 11, 2014https://www.kff.org/health-reform/poll-finding/assessing-americans-familiarity-with-health-insurance-terms-and-concepts/Date accessed: March 19, 2021
- Do consumers know how their health plan works?.Health Aff (Millwood). 2001; 20: 159-166https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.20.2.159