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Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Adult Vaccination Coverage

      Introduction

      Adults from racial and ethnic minorities and low-income groups are disproportionately affected by vaccine-preventable diseases. The objective of this study is to examine the trends in adult vaccination coverage in the U.S. by race/ethnicity and SES from 2010 to 2019.

      Methods

      Temporal trends in influenza; pneumococcal; herpes zoster; and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination coverage were examined by race/ethnicity and SES in 2020 using the National Health Interview Surveys from 2010 to 2019.

      Results

      Influenza vaccination coverage differed by race/ethnicity among adults aged ≥65 years (61.4% for Black, 63.9% for Hispanic, 71.9% for Asian, and 72.4% for White adults). Race/ethnicity, household income, education level, and health insurance type were significantly associated with receipt of influenza; pneumococcal; tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis; and zoster vaccinations among adults aged ≥65 years in a multivariable-adjusted regression model. Socioeconomic differences in influenza vaccine uptake narrowed among adults aged 18–64 years from 2010 to 2019. By contrast, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in vaccine uptake persisted from 2010 to 2019 among adults aged ≥65 years.

      Conclusions

      Racial and ethnic disparities in vaccine uptake persisted over the last decade. Socioeconomic disparities in influenza vaccine coverage narrowed among adults aged 18–64 years; however, disparities persisted among adults aged ≥65 years. Efforts are urgently needed to achieve equity in immunization rates.
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