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- Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.Lancet. 2019; 393: 1958-1972https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30041-8
- Association between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the United States.JAMA. 2017; 317: 912-924https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.0947
- Association between healthy eating patterns and risk of cardiovascular disease.JAMA Intern Med. 2020; 180: 1090-1100https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2176
- Association of changes in diet quality with total and cause-specific mortality.N Engl J Med. 2017; 377: 143-153https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1613502
- Adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2015 and other dietary patterns may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality.J Nutr. 2020; 150: 312-321https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz218
- Dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.J Nutr. 2017; 147: 1174-1182https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.116.242552
- Healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns and the risk of chronic disease: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies.Br J Nutr. 2020; 124: 1133-1144https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520002330
- Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, Alternate Healthy Eating Index, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, and health outcomes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.J Acad Nutr Diet. 2018; 118: 74-100.e11https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2017.08.024
- Improved diet quality associates with reduction in liver fat, particularly in individuals with high genetic risk scores for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.Gastroenterology. 2018; 155: 107-117https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.03.038
- Healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly.Br J Nutr. 2016; 115: 2189-2195https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516001410
- Practical dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adults.Adv Nutr. 2018; 9: 30-40https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmx007
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NHANES survey methods and analytic guidelines. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/AnalyticGuidelines.aspx#plan-and-operations. Accessed July 6, 2020.
NCHS research Ethics Review Board (ERB) approval*. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/irba98.htm. Updated November 29 2017. Accessed July 6, 2020.
NHANES dietary data. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/Search/DataPage.aspx?Component=Dietary. Accessed July 6, 2020.
- HHS. Physical activity guidelines for Americans.2nd edition. HHS, Washington, DCPublished September 2019https://health.gov/sites/default/files/2019-09/Physical_Activity_Guidelines_2nd_edition.pdfDate accessed: February 18, 2021
- Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) analysis guide.WHO, Geneva, SwitzerlandPublished 2002http://www.who.int/chp/steps/GPAQ/en/index.htmlDate accessed: February 18, 2021
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Developing the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, NIH. https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/hei/developing.html. Updated July 24, 2020. Accessed July 6, 2020.
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How the HEI is scored. Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. https://www.fns.usda.gov/how-hei-scored. Updated March 16, 2018. Accessed July 1, 2019.
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Overview of the methods & calculations. Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, NIH. https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/hei/hei-methods-and-calculations.html. Updated July 24, 2020. Accessed April 6, 2020.
NHANES examination data. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/search/datapage.aspx?Component=Examination. Accessed July 9, 2020.
NHANES laboratory data. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/search/datapage.Aspx?Component=laboratory. Accessed July 6, 2020.
NHANES 2017-2018 procedure manuals. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/continuousnhanes/manuals.aspx?BeginYear=2017. Updated XXX. Accessed February 18, 2021.
- Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults–the evidence report. National Institutes of Health [published correction appears in Obes Res. 1998;6(6):464].Obes Res. 1998; 6: 51S-209S
- How Americans rate their diet quality: an increasingly realistic perspective. USDA-ERS Economic Information Bulletin No. 83.United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCPublished September 2011https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/44590/6042_eib83_1_.pdf?v=0Date accessed: June 30, 2020
- Construct validity of a single-item, self-rated question of diet quality.J Nutr Educ Behav. 2015; 47: 181-187https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2014.09.003
- Validation of self-rated overall diet quality by Healthy Eating Index-2010 score among New York City adults, 2013.Prev Med Rep. 2016; 3: 127-131https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.01.001
- Consumer misperceptions of diet quality.J Nutr Educ. 2001; 33: 314-321https://doi.org/10.1016/s1499-4046(06)60353-9
- Discrepancy between perceived diet quality and actual diet quality among U.S. adult cancer survivors.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020; 74: 1457-1464https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-0619-2
- Significant relationships exist between perceived and objective diet quality in young adults.J Acad Nutr Diet. 2020; 120: 103-110https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2019.06.002
- Associations of key diet-quality indexes with mortality in the Multiethnic Cohort: the dietary patterns methods project.Am J Clin Nutr. 2015; 101: 587-597https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.090688
- Perceived and objective diet quality in U.S. adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).Public Health Nutr. 2014; 17: 2641-2649https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980014000196
- The effect of social desirability trait on self-reported dietary measures among multi-ethnic female health center employees.Ann Epidemiol. 2001; 11: 417-427https://doi.org/10.1016/s1047-2797(01)00212-5
- Gender differences in social desirability and social approval bias in dietary self-report.Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 146: 1046-1055https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009233
- Interviewer effects in public health surveys.Health Educ Res. 2010; 25: 14-26https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyp046
- Consumer beliefs about healthy foods and diets.PLoS One. 2019; 14e0223098https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223098
- Consumption of fruit and vegetables: how to motivate the population to change their behavior.Cancer Lett. 1997; 114: 335-336https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3835(97)04696-x
- How people interpret healthy eating: contributions of qualitative research.J Nutr Educ Behav. 2012; 44: 282-301https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2011.11.009
- Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.Nutr Res. 2014; 34: 134-142https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2013.11.004
- Americans’ awareness, knowledge, and behaviors regarding fats: 2006-2007.J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 288-296https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.10.048
- The Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument is a valid and reliable measure of nutrition literacy in adults with chronic disease.J Nutr Educ Behav. 2018; 50: 247-257.e1https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2017.10.008
- Food choice and nutrition: a social psychological perspective.Nutrients. 2015; 7: 8712-8715https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105424
- Self-efficacy, health literacy, and nutrition and exercise behaviors in a low-income, Hispanic population.J Immigr Minor Health. 2017; 19: 489-493https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-016-0384-4
- Sodium intake among persons aged ≥2 years - United States, 2013-2014.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017; 66 (324‒238)https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6612a3
- Prevalence of excess sodium intake in the United States - NHANES, 2009-2012.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016; 64: 1393-1397https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6452a1
- Asian American dietary sources of sodium and salt behaviors compared with other racial/ethnic groups, NHANES, 2011-2012.Ethn Dis. 2017; 27: 241-248https://doi.org/10.18865/ed.27.3.241
- Relationship of self-rated health with fatal and non-fatal outcomes in cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.PLoS One. 2014; 9e103509https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103509
- Self-rated health and morbidity onset among late midlife U.S. adults.J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2013; 68: 107-116https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbs104
- Self-reported health and adult mortality risk: an analysis of cause-specific mortality.Soc Sci Med. 2004; 59: 1297-1306https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.01.001
- What is self-rated health and why does it predict mortality? Towards a unified conceptual model.Soc Sci Med. 2009; 69: 307-316https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.05.013
- Patterns of recommended dietary behaviors predict subsequent risk of mortality in a large cohort of men and women in the United States.J Nutr. 2009; 139: 1374-1380https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.104505
- Behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults without known cardiovascular disease risk factors: updated evidence report and systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.JAMA. 2017; 318: 175-193https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.3303
Search the data. Healthy People 2020, HHS, Office of Disease Prevention and Health promotion. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/data-search/Search-the-Data#objid=4965. Updated July 2020. Accessed July 10, 2020.
- Nutrition counseling in clinical practice: how clinicians can do better.JAMA. 2017; 318: 1101-1102https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.10434
- Barriers to providing nutrition counseling cited by physicians: a survey of primary care practitioners.Nutr Clin Pract. 2010; 25: 502-509https://doi.org/10.1177/0884533610380057
Choosing a method. Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, NIH. https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/hei/tools.html. Updated July 24, 2020. Accessed March 18, 2020.
- The USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method accurately assesses population sodium intakes.Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97: 958-964https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.044982
- The USDA automated multiple-pass method accurately estimates group total energy and nutrient intake.J Nutr. 2006; 136: 2594-2599https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.10.2594
- Accuracy of dietary recall using the USDA five-step multiple-pass method in men: an observational validation study.J Am Diet Assoc. 2004; 104: 595-603https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2004.01.007
- Effectiveness of the U.S. Department of Agriculture 5-step multiple-pass method in assessing food intake in obese and nonobese women.Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77: 1171-1178https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/77.5.1171
- The U.S. Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method reduces bias in the collection of energy intakes.Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88: 324-332https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/88.2.324
- Differential health reporting by education level and its impact on the measurement of health inequalities among older Europeans.Int J Epidemiol. 2008; 37: 1375-1383https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyn146
- Reporting biases in self-assessed physical and cognitive health status of older Europeans.PLoS One. 2019; 14e0223526https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223526
- Whiners and deniers - what does self-rated health measure?.Soc Sci Med. 2012; 75: 1-9https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.10.030