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- Suicide acts in 8 states: incidence and case fatality rates by demographics and method.Am J Public Health. 2000; 90: 1885-1891https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.90.12.1885
- Characteristics of impulsive suicide attempts and attempters.Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2001; 32 (suppl): 49-59https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.188.8.131.52.24212
- The duration of the suicidal process: how much time is left for intervention between consideration and accomplishment of a suicide attempt?.J Clin Psychiatry. 2009; 70: 19-24https://doi.org/10.4088/jcp.07m03904
- Means restriction for suicide prevention.Lancet. 2012; 379: 2393-2399https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60521-2
- Global Burden of Disease Self-Harm Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of suicide mortality 1990 to 2016: systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.BMJ. 2019; 364: l94https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l94
- The U.S. gun stock: results from the 2004 national firearms survey.Inj Prev. 2007; 13: 15-19https://doi.org/10.1136/ip.2006.013607
- WISQARSTM – Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Updated July 1, 2020www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqarsDate accessed: June 16, 2021
- Suicide mortality in the United States, 1999–2019.NCHS Data Brief. 2021; : 1-8https://doi.org/10.15620/cdc:101761
- Household firearm ownership and rates of suicide across the 50 United States.J Trauma. 2007; 62: 1029-1035https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ta.0000198214.24056.40
- Household firearm ownership and suicide rates in the United States.Epidemiology. 2002; 13: 517-524https://doi.org/10.1097/00001648-200209000-00006
- Handgun ownership and suicide in California.N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 2220-2229https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa1916744
- Firearm access and adolescent suicide risk: toward a clearer understanding of effect size.Inj Prev. 2020; 27: 264-270https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043605
- The association between changes in household firearm ownership and rates of suicide in the United States, 1981-2002.Inj Prev. 2006; 12: 178-182https://doi.org/10.1136/ip.2005.010850
Martínez-Alés G, Pamplin JR 2nd, Rutherford C, et al. Age, period, and cohort effects on suicide death in the United States from 1999 to 2018: moderation by sex, race, and firearm involvement. Mol Psychiatry. In press. Online April 7, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01078-1.
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Intercensal estimates of the resident population of the United States for July 1, 1990. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/bridged_race.htm. Updated June 20, 2019. Accessed June 16, 2021.
Intercensal estimates of the resident population of the United States for July 1, 2000. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/bridged_race.htm. Updated June 20, 2019. Accessed June 16, 2021.
Vintage 2019 postcensal estimates of the resident population of the United States for April 1, 2010. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/bridged_race.htm. Updated June 20, 2019. Accessed June 16, 2021.
- State-level estimates of household firearm ownership.RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CAPublished 2020https://doi.org/10.7249/tl354
- Why are suicide rates increasing in the United States? Towards a multilevel reimagination of suicide prevention.(ed)in: Baca-Garcia E Behavioral Neurobiology of Suicide and Self Harm. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland2020: 1-23https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2020_158 (Vol 46)
Local area unemployment statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. https://www.bls.gov/lau/tables.htm. Updated March 3, 2021. Accessed June 16, 2021.
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Statistical abstract of the United States: 2012. U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2011/compendia/statab/131ed.html. Updated December 19, 2018. Accessed January 25, 2021.
- What is a cohort effect? Comparison of three statistical methods for modeling cohort effects in obesity prevalence in the United States, 1971-2006.Soc Sci Med. 2010; 70: 1100-1108https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.12.018
- A mixed models approach to the age-period-cohort analysis of repeated cross-section surveys, with an application to data on trends in verbal test scores.Sociol Methodol. 2006; 36: 75-97https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9531.2006.00175.x
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- Household gun ownership and youth suicide rates at the state level, 2005-2015.Am J Prev Med. 2019; 56: 335-342https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.10.027
- Firearm suicides and homicides in the United States: regional variations and patterns of gun ownership.Soc Sci Med. 1998; 46: 1227-1233https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(97)10051-x
- Reducing a suicidal person's access to lethal means of suicide: a research agenda.Am J Prev Med. 2014; 47 (suppl 2): S264-S272https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2014.05.028
- Long term effect of reduced pack sizes of paracetamol on poisoning deaths and liver transplant activity in England and Wales: interrupted time series analyses.BMJ. 2013; 346: f403https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f403
- Prevention of suicide with regulations aimed at restricting access to highly hazardous pesticides: a systematic review of the international evidence.Lancet Glob Health. 2017; 5: e1026-e1037https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30299-1
- Change in suicide rates in Switzerland before and after firearm restriction resulting from the 2003 “Army XXI” reform.Am J Psychiatry. 2013; 170: 977-984https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12091256
- Firearms regulation and declining rates of male suicide in Quebec.Inj Prev. 2010; 16: 247-253https://doi.org/10.1136/ip.2009.022491
- Firearm legislation reform in the European Union: impact on firearm availability, firearm suicide and homicide rates in Austria.Br J Psychiatry. 2007; 191: 253-257https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.106.032862
- Australia's 1996 gun law reforms: faster falls in firearm deaths, firearm suicides, and a decade without mass shootings.Inj Prev. 2006; 12: 365-372https://doi.org/10.1136/ip.2006.013714
- Decrease in suicide rates after a change of policy reducing access to firearms in adolescents: a naturalistic epidemiological study.Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2010; 40: 421-424https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.2010.40.5.421
- Gun ownership and social gun culture.Inj Prev. 2016; 22: 216-220https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2015-041586
- A public health approach to tackling the role of culture in shaping the gun violence epidemic in the United States.Public Health Rep. 2021; 136: 6-9https://doi.org/10.1177/0033354920965263
- What is gun culture? Cultural variations and trends across the United States.Humanit Soc Sci Commun. 2020; 7: 1-12https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-0520-6
- Firearm storage practices among American Veterans.Am J Prev Med. 2018; 55: 445-454https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.014
- Safer storage of firearms at home and risk of suicide: a study of protective factors in a nationally representative sample.J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004; 58: 841-848https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2003.017343
- Effects of risk-based firearm seizure laws in Connecticut and Indiana on suicide rates, 1981-2015.Psychiatr Serv. 2018; 69: 855-862https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201700250
- National trends in the prevalence and treatment of depression in adolescents and young adults.Pediatrics. 2016; 138e20161878https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1878
- Hospitalization for suicide ideation or attempt: 2008–2015.Pediatrics. 2018; 141e20172426https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-2426
- Recent increases in depressive symptoms among U.S. adolescents: trends from 1991 to 2018.Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2019; 54: 987-996https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-019-01697-8
- Increase in state suicide rates in the USA during economic recession.Lancet. 2012; 380: 1813-1814https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61910-2
- The potential public health relevance of social isolation and loneliness: prevalence, epidemiology, and risk factors.Public Policy Aging Rep. 2017; 27: 127-130https://doi.org/10.1093/ppar/prx030
- Three million more guns: the spring 2020 spike in firearm sales.Brookings. July 13, 2020; (Accessed February 1, 2021)https://www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2020/07/13/three-million-more-guns-the-spring-2020-spike-in-firearm-sales/
- Can we rely on suicide mortality data?.Crisis. 2015; 36: 1-3https://doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000315
Guns. Gallup. https://news.gallup.com/poll/1645/guns.aspx. Updated April 2, 2021. Accessed June 16, 2021.
- General social survey final report: trends in gun ownership in the United States, 1972-2014.NORC at the University of Chicago, Chicago, ILPublished March 2015https://www.norc.org/PDFs/GSS%20Reports/GSS_Trends%20in%20Gun%20Ownership_US_1972-2014.pdfDate accessed: June 16, 2021
Bond AE, Anestis MD. Firearm type and number: examining differences among firearm owning suicide decedents. Arch Suicide Res. In press. Online February 11, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2021.1885536.
- Guns in the home and risk of a violent death in the home: findings from a national study.Am J Epidemiol. 2004; 160: 929-936https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh309
- Type of firearm used in suicides: findings from 13 states in the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2005-2015.J Adolesc Health. 2019; 65: 366-370https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.03.015