Evaluation of a Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process Approach for Hypertension

Published:September 20, 2021DOI:


      An estimated 116 million American adults (47.3%) have hypertension. Most adults with hypertension do not have it controlled—3 in 4 (92.1 million) U.S. adults with hypertension have a blood pressure ≥130/80 mmHg. The Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process is a standardized patient-centered approach to the provision of pharmacist care that is done in collaboration with other healthcare providers. Through the Michigan Medicine Hypertension Pharmacists’ Program, pharmacists use the Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process to provide hypertension management services in collaboration with physicians in primary care and community pharmacy settings. In 2019, the impact of Michigan Medicine Hypertension Pharmacists’ Program patient participation on blood pressure control was evaluated.


      Propensity scoring was used to match patients in the intervention group with patients in the comparison group and regression analyses were then conducted to compare the 2 groups on key patient outcomes. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the number of days with blood pressure under control. The findings presented in this brief are part of a larger multimethod evaluation.


      More patients in the intervention group than in the comparison group achieved blood pressure control at 3 months (66.3% vs 42.4%) and 6 months (69.1% vs 56.5%). The intervention group experienced more days with blood pressure under control within a 3-month (18.6 vs 9.5 days) and 6-month period (57.0 vs 37.4 days) than the comparison group did.


      Findings support the effectiveness of the Michigan Medicine Hypertension Pharmacists’ Program approach to implementing the Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process to improve blood pressure control.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


      1. Hypertension cascade: hypertension prevalence, treatment and control estimates among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older applying the criteria from the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association's 2017 Hypertension guideline–NHANES 2015–2018.
        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Updated March 22, 2021
        • Community Preventive Services Task Force
        Team-based care to improve blood pressure control: recommendation of the Community Preventive Services Task Force.
        Am J Prev Med. 2014; 47: 100-102
        • Hwang AY
        • Gums TH
        • Gums JG
        The benefits of physician-pharmacist collaboration.
        J Fam Pract. 2017; 66: E1-E8
        • Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners
        The Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process.
        Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners, Published May 29, 2014
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HHS
        Using the Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process to manage high blood pressure: a resource guide for pharmacists.
        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HHS, Atlanta, GAPublished 2016 (Accessed May 17, 2021)
        • Choe HM
        • Farris KB
        • Stevenson JG
        • et al.
        Patient-centered medical home: developing, expanding and sustaining a role for pharmacists.
        Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2012; 69: 1063-1071
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HHS.
        The pharmacists’ patient care process approach: an implementation guide for public health practitioners based on the Michigan Medicine Hypertension Pharmacists Program. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HHS. Published 2021, Atlanta, GA2021
        • Spencer LM
        • Schooley MW
        • Anderson LA
        • et al.
        Seeking best practices: a conceptual framework for planning and improving evidence-based practices.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2013; 10: E207
        • National Committee for Quality Assurance
        Controlling high blood pressure (CBP).
        National Committee for Quality Assurance, Washington, DCPublished 2020
        • Overwyk KJ
        • Dehmer SP
        • Roy K
        • et al.
        Modeling the health and budgetary impacts of a team-based hypertension care intervention that includes pharmacists.
        Med Care. 2019; 57: 882-889
        • Santschi V
        • Chiolero A
        • Colosimo AL
        • et al.
        Improving blood pressure control through pharmacist interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2014; 3e000718
        • Gums TH
        • Uribe L
        • Vander Weg MW
        • James P
        • Coffey C
        • Carter BL
        Pharmacist intervention for blood pressure control: medication intensification and adherence.
        J Am Soc Hypertens. 2015; 9: 569-578