Gestational Diabetes and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy by Maternal Birthplace

Published:December 08, 2021DOI:


      Gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increase the risk for future adverse health outcomes in the pregnant woman and baby, and disparities exist in the rates of gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy by race/ethnicity. The objective of this study is to identify the differences in gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy rates by maternal place of birth within race/ethnicity groups.


      In women aged 15–44 years at first live singleton birth in U.S. surveillance data between 2014 and 2019, age-standardized rates of gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the rate ratios of gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in women born outside versus those born in the U.S. were evaluated, stratified by race/ethnicity. Analyses were conducted in 2021.


      Of 8,574,264 included women, 6,827,198 were born in the U.S. (mean age=26.2 [SD 5.7] years), and 1,747,066 were born outside the U.S. (mean age=28.2 [SD=5.8] years). Overall, the gestational diabetes mellitus rate was higher in women born outside than in those born in the U.S. (70.3, 95% CI=69.9, 70.7 vs 53.2, 95% CI=53.0, 53.4 per 1,000 live births; rate ratio=1.32, 95% CI=1.31, 1.33), a pattern observed in most race/ethnic groups. By contrast, the overall hypertensive disorders of pregnancy rate was lower in those born outside than in those born in the U.S. (52.5, 95% CI=52.2, 52.9 vs 90.1, 95% CI=89.9, 90.3 per 1,000 live births; rate ratio=0.58, 95% CI=0.58, 0.59), a pattern observed in most race/ethnic groups.


      In the U.S., gestational diabetes mellitus rates were higher and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy rates were lower in women born outside the U.S. than in those born in the U.S. in most race/ethnicity groups.
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