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Video-Observed Therapy Versus Directly Observed Therapy in Patients With Tuberculosis

Published:December 13, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2021.10.013

      Introduction

      This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized evidence in the effects of video-observed therapy versus that of directly observed therapy on medication adherence, treatment completion, and tuberculosis resolution among patients with tuberculosis.

      Methods

      Potential studies were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHLdirect, and Cochrane from inception to February 1, 2021. Inclusion criteria included (1) tuberculosis-infected population, (2) video-observed therapy as an intervention, (3) directly observed therapy as the comparison group, and (4) patient's medication adherence or clinical outcomes. Data were collected in 2021. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel–Haenszel methods with RR for dichotomous outcomes (medication adherence, treatment completion, and bacteriological resolution) and generic inverse variance methods with a weighted mean difference for continuous outcomes (proportion of doses observed).

      Results

      A total of 9 studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Compared with patients receiving directly observed therapy, patients with video-observed therapy were associated with improved medication adherence (RR=2.79, 95% CI=2.26, 3.45, I2=25%), the proportion of doses observed (weighted mean difference=0.22, 95% CI=0.06, 0.39, I2=96%), and bacteriological resolution (RR=1.06, 95% CI=1.01, 1.11, I2=0%) but with similar treatment completion (RR=1.33, 95% CI=0.73, 2.43, I2=98%).

      Discussion

      Implementation of video-observed therapy improved medication adherence and bacteriological resolution compared with that of directly observed therapy in tuberculosis-infected patients.
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