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- Opioid analgesics and rates of fatal drug poisoning in the United States.Am J Prev Med. 2006; 31: 506-511https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2006.08.017
- CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain–United States, 2016.JAMA. 2016; 315: 1624-1645https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.1464
- Trends in opioid analgesic-prescribing rates by specialty, U.S., 2007-2012.Am J Prev Med. 2015; 49: 409-413https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.020
- Distribution of opioids by different types of Medicare prescribers.JAMA Intern Med. 2016; 176: 259-261https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.6662
- Opioid prescribing by specialty and volume in the U.S.Am J Prev Med. 2018; 55: e153-e155https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.06.008
- Opioid prescribing to Medicare Part D enrollees, 2013-2017: shifting responsibility to pain management providers.Pain Med. 2020; 21: 1400-1407https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnz344
- Trends in opioid prescribing: have we reduced opioid prescriptions or merely shifted to new prescribers?.Pain Med. 2021; 22: 3096-3097https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnab075
Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System. http://pdaps.org/. Accessed April 14, 2021.
IQVIA. https://www.iqvia.com. Accessed June 11, 2021.
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. CDC compilation of benzodiazepines, muscle relaxants, stimulants, zolpidem, and opioid analgesics with oral morphine milligram equivalent conversion factors, 2018 version. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/resources/data.html. Accessed October 27, 2021.
Percentage change in the number of active physicians by specialty; 2012-17 Association of American Medical Colleges. https://www.aamc.org/data-reports/workforce/interactive-data/percentage-change-number-active-physicians-specialty-2012-17. Accessed April 22, 2021.
NP fact sheet. American Association of Nurse Practitioners. http://aanp.org/about/all-about-nps/np-fact-sheet. Updated May 2021. Accessed July 29, 2021.
Statistical profile of certified physician assistants, 2013 and 2018. NCCPA. http://nccpa.net/resources/nccpa-research. Accessed July 29, 2021.