- Rowley DL
- Hogue CJ
- Blackmore CA
- et al.
- Rowley DL
- Hogue CJ
- Blackmore CA
- et al.
|Diane L. Rowley, MD, MPH, Emeritus Professor of the Practice of Public Health, Department of Maternal and Child Health, and Senior Researcher, Sheps Center for Health Services Research, UNC Gillings School of Public Health (Chapel Hill, North Carolina)||The 1985 “Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health” revealed
the staggering health disparities among populations of color in the U.S. Infant mortality
was one of the major contributors to excess deaths. However, 5 years after its publication,
no new approaches to understanding and reducing the infant mortality disparity had
emerged. In 1990, I directed a group at the CDC that embarked on a year-long multidisciplinary
review of factors that potentially contributed to the disparity. The year culminated
in an invited conference that called for a new prevention research strategy on preterm
delivery as a major contributor to the disparity in infant mortality. A companion
publication to the conference was published in 1993 as we began funding components
of the research strategy. The research strategy embraced an interdisciplinary conceptual
framework that would potentially result in a broad spectrum of interventions. We called
for studying "the environmental stressors" and protective factors associated with
being African American in the U.S. as important contributors to the high risk of very
low birth weight and preterm delivery. We declared racism, sexism, and classism as
environmental factors that interfere with a woman's ability to achieve optimal health.
We required collaboration with African American families on what should be studied,
how to design studies, and what study benefits should go to participants. (Rowley
DL, Hogue CJ, Blackmore CA, Ferre CD, Hatfield-Timajchy K, Branch P, Atrash HK. Preterm
delivery among African-American women: a research strategy. Am J Prev Med. 19,931; 9(6):1–6; Rowley DL. Research issues in the study of very low birthweight
and preterm delivery among African-American women. J Natl Med Assoc. 1994; 86761–764.)
Some colleagues at the CDC warned me that the journal supplement would not get through the CDC clearance for publication process because of the controversial article that explicitly referred to racism as a contributor to health outcomes, a first for a CDC publication. Fortunately, I persevered, and we made it through.
|Bylley Avery, founder of the Black Women's Health Imperative, formerly the National Black Women's Health Project, and the Avery Institute for Social Change||Reflections 30 years later:
As I reflect on my participation in the writing of this article over 30 years ago, I realize the special space we occupied and the bravery in introducing the idea that racism has a negative impact on our health. For 10 years, women at the National Black Women's Health Project voiced their lived experiences that clearly showed the way our health is shaped by a lack of access to health care; how racial discrimination shaped their lives. Participation in this article and conference gave me a place to make their voices heard and recorded. Black women also emphasized the importance of addressing physical, emotional, and spiritual health, well-being.
It has become more apparent that racism based in the institution of slavery continues to influence the health of Black people. Brutality forced on enslaved people passed through DNA to future generations contributes to vast inequalities despite advances in education and social class as evidenced by increasing Black infant and maternal mortality.
It is imperative that the American healthcare system deal effectively with structural racism, implicit racial bias, and a lack of access to quality health care; the health of future generations will be a mirror of the past.
|Mona T. Phillips, PhD, cochair of Sociology and Anthropology, Professor of Sociology & Anthropology, Spellman College (Atlanta, Georgia)||Like most of the country and the world, I have been consumed these past 2 years (has
it been that long?) by the most up-to-date news of COVID-19 variants and vaccination
rates, and I have been struck by the fact that social media and television coverage
has been shaped by 1 assumption:
That this country cannot even begin to grapple with health, death, and access to care without careful consideration of race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, social class/precarity, and the geography of inequality.
The mainstreaming of intersectionality—and intersectionality's embodiment in public health experts and community health workers on cable and network television—has been gratifying.
When I tell my students that we live inside history, I am primarily alerting them to the signs of a second post-Reconstruction era in the U.S. and a transnational far-right movement fueled by vaccine disinformation and discourses of individual rights.
I tell them the world has been here before.
But while rethinking and rereading “Racism, Sexism, and Social Class: implications for Studies of Health, Disease, and Well-Being,” I am reminded of what it is to live inside history on a personal level and be a part of an intellectual and (dare I say?) political partnership with the other people whose names are on this publication. I had not been a part of a team such as this before, and the conversations and ideas and commitment to social justice shaped my own work and future partnerships, including the community-based research on Black women's preterm delivery (Fleda Mask Jackson, Diane L. Rowley, Carol J. Hogue, Tracey Curry Owens).
I am grateful.
|Sections and subsections|
|Racial Differences in Preterm Delivery – Sherman A. James (pp. v–vi)|
|Preterm Delivery Among African-American Women: A Research Strategy – Diane L. Rowley, Carol J.R. Hogue, Cheryl A. Blackmore, Cynthia D. Ferre, Kendra Hatfield-Timajchy, Priscilla Branch, and Hani K. Atrash (pp. 1–6)|
|COMPETING CLAIMS: THE SOCIAL CONTEXT FOR RESEARCH ON RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN PRETERM DELIVERY|
|Infant Mortality and Health Policy|
|Confronting Racial Disparities in Infant Mortality: Reconciling Science and Politics – Paul. H. Wise (pp. 7–16)|
|Infant Mortality: Its History and Social Construction – Martha Hargraves and Richard W. Thomas (pp. 17–26)|
|Research Within the Black Community|
|Community Research: Partnership in Black Communities – John Hatch, Nancy Moss, Ama Saran, Letitia Presley-Cantrell, and Carol Mallory (pp. 27–31)|
|Commentary on “Community Research: Partnership in Black Communities” – William W. Dressler (pp. 32–34)|
|A Legacy of Distrust: African Americans and Medical Research – Vanessa Northington Gamble (pp. 35–38)|
|FRAMEWORKS AND APPROACHES TO ANALYZING SOCIAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF WOMEN'S HEALTH|
|Psychosocial Measurement: Implications for the Study of Preterm Delivery in Black Women – Diane E. McLean, Kendra Hatfield-Timajchy, Phyllis A. Wingo, and R. Louise Floyd (pp. 39–81)|
|Racism, Sexism, and Social Class: Implications for Studies of Health, Disease, and Well-Being – Nancy Krieger, Diane L. Rowley, Allen A. Herman, Byllye Avery, and Mona T. Phillips (pp. 82–122)|
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
- Preterm delivery among African-American women: a research strategy.Am J Prev Med. 1993; 9: 1-6https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(18)30659-7
- Racism, sexism, and social class: implications for studies of health, disease, and well-being.Am J Prev Med. 1993; 9: 82-122https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(18)30666-4
- Racism, Class, and Health: Studies of Breast Cancer and Hypertension.University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley1989 ([dissertation]. Accessed December 5, 2021.)
Krieger N. AIDS policy paper of the National Rainbow Coalition. Paper presented at: 2nd Rainbow Coalition National Convention; October 10, 1987; Raleigh, NC.
- The Rainbow Challenge: the Jackson Campaign and the Future of U.S. Politics.Monthly Review Press, New York, NY1986
- Shades of difference: theoretical underpinnings of the medical controversy on black/white differences in the United States, 1830–1870.Int J Health Serv. 1987; 17: 259-278https://doi.org/10.2190/DBY6-VDQ8-HME8-ME3R
- Intersectionality (Second ed., Key concepts). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. 2020;
- Epidemiology and the web of causation: has anyone seen the spider?.Soc Sci Med. 1994; 39: 887-903https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(94)90202-X
Google Scholar. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C22&inst=6453797383205921872&q=krieger+racism%2C+sexism%2C+and+social+class&btnG=. Accessed December 5, 2021.
- Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health.WHO, Geneva, Switzerland2008 (Accessed December 5, 2021.)
- Just Societies: Health Equity and Dignified Lives. Report of the Commission of the Pan American Health Organization on Equity and Health Inequalities in the Americas.Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC2019 (Accessed December 5, 2021.)
- Textbook of Global Health.Textbook of Global Health. Oxford University Press, New York, NY2017https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199392285.001.0001
Racism. PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=racism&timeline=expanded. Accessed December 5, 2021.
- NIMHD Minority Health and Health Disparities Framework.National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 2021 (Updated December 2. Accessed December 5, 2021.)
- Measures of racism, sexism, heterosexism, and gender binarism for health equity research: from structural injustice to embodied harm – an ecosocial analysis.Annu Rev Public Health. 2020; 41: 37-62https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094017
- ENOUGH: COVID-19, structural racism, police brutality, plutocracy, climate change-and time for health justice, democratic governance, and an equitable, sustainable future.Am J Public Health. 2020; 110: 1620-1623https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305886
Racism and Health. American Public Health Association.https://www.apha.org/topics-and-issues/health-equity/racism-and-health. Accessed December 5, 2021.
- Organizational Strategic Plan toEmbed Racial Justice and Advance Health Equity.American Medical Association, Chicago, ILMay 2021 (Accessed December 5, 2021.)
Racism: search results. Association of Schools & Programs of Public Health (ASPPH). https://www.aspph.org/?s=Racism. Accessed December 5, 2021.
Collins FS. NIH stands against structural racism in biomedical research; 2021.https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/who-we-are/nih-director/statements/nih-stands-against-structural-racism-biomedical-research. Accessed December 5, 2021.
- Ending structural racism.NIH, Bethesda, MDMarch 1, 2021 (Accessed December 5, 2021.)
Media Statement from CDC Director Rochelle P. Walensky, MD, MPH, on Racism and Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2021/s0408-racism-health.html. Updated April 8, 2021. Accessed December 5, 2021.
Racism and health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/racism-disparities/index.html. Updated November 24, 2021. Accessed December 5, 2021.
- Actions to transform U.S. Preventive Services Task Force methods to mitigate systemic racism in clinical preventive services.JAMA. 2021; 326: 2405-2411https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.17594
The Presidential COVID-19 Health Equity Task Force. Final report and recommendations. HHS, Office of Minority Health. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=2&lvlid=100. Updated November 10, 2021. Accessed December 5, 2021.
- Trump bars “propaganda” training sessions on race in his latest overture to his base.CNN News. September 5, 2020; (Accessed December 5, 2021)
- Trump expands ban on racial sensitivity training to federal contractors.Natl Public Radio (NPR). September 22, 2020; (Published 2020. Accessed December 4, 2021.)https://www.npr.org/2020/09/22/915843471/trump-expands-ban-on-racial-sensitivity-training-to-federal-contractors
- Biden diversity order reverses Trump ban on “white privilege” training.Newsweek. January 21, 2021; (Accessed December 4, 2021.)
- Executive Order on Advancing Racial Equity and Support for Underserved Communities Through the Federal Government.The White House, Washington, DC2021 (Published Janyary 20. Accessed December 5, 2021.)https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/presidential-actions/2021/01/20/executive-order-advancing-racial-equity-and-support-for-underserved-communities-through-the-federal-government/
- The war on critical race theory.Boston Review, Cambridge, MA2021 (Published May 7, 2021. Accessed December 5, 2021.)
- Critical Race Theory battle invades school boards – with help from conservative groups.NBC News. June 15, 2021; (Accessed December 5, 2021.)https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/critical-race-theory-invades-school-boards-help-conservative-groups-n1270794
- “Gender Ideology” is a fiction that could do real harm.Open Society Foundation. August 29, 2017; (Accessed December 5, 2021.)
- Why is the idea of “gender” provoking backlash the world over?.The Guardian. October 23, 2021; (Accessed December 5, 2021.)https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/commentisfree/2021/oct/23/judith-butler-gender-ideology-backlash
- Neoliberalism: A Very Short Introduction.2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom2021https://doi.org/10.1093/actrade/9780198849674.001.0001
- The Age of Crisis: Neoliberalism, the Collapse of Democracy, and the Pandemic.Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, Switzerland2021https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-81608-7
- Neoliberalism dies of COVID. Long live neoliberalism! How the predominant ideology of our time survived the pandemic.New York Magazine. 2021; (Published October 14, 2021.) (Accessed December 5, 2021)
- Coronavirus Politics: the Comparative Politics and Policy of COVID-19.University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan2021
- Right-wing responsible for pushing coronavirus disinformation on Twitter worldwide, new report says.Forbes. April 21, 2020; (Accessed December 5, 2021.)https://www.forbes.com/sites/seanlawson/2020/04/21/right-wing-responsible-for-pushing-coronavirus-disinformation-on-twitter-worldwide-new-report-says/
- Behind low vaccination rates lurks a more profound social weakness.New York Times. December 3, 2021 (Accessed December 5, 2021.)
- The Purpose of Power: How We Come Together When We Fall Apart.One World, New York, NY2020
- The Nature of Difference: Sciences of Race in the United States From Jefferson to Genomics.(eds) MIT Press, Cambridge, MA2008
- Eugenics: A Very Short Introduction.Oxford University Press, New York, NY2017https://doi.org/10.1093/actrade/9780199385904.001.0001
- Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877.Updated edition. New American Nation series. HarperPerennial, New York, NY2014
- Stony the Road: Reconstruction, White Supremacy, and the Rise of Jim Crow.Penguin Books, New York, NY2020
- Beyond Vietnam – A time to break the silence.Riverside Church, New York City, April 4, 1967 (Accessed December 5, 2021.)
Infant mortality and African Americans. HHS, Office of Minority Health. https://www.minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=4&lvlid=23. Accessed February 21, 2021.